What are the justifications people use to say that the rich ought to pay more in income taxes than the poor? I'm only interested in justifications that work even if "the rich" legally earned their wealth through either hard work or plain luck - nothing illegal.
Here I'm referring to the absolute amount of income taxes paid (measured in currency) rather than a specific percentage of income.
My motivation for understanding this is that both a rich individual and a poor individual seem to be utilizing comparable quantities of public resources from local, State, and Federal governments (roads, education, police and military protection, etc.). Both individuals also receive a single vote in elections. However billionaires contribute far more in taxes.