Is there a political Science study that looks at things like a country that is going through or has gone through a civil war or revolution and looks at the likelihood of a certain faction "winning" the civil war or revolution, and what the repercussions would be?
Yes Governments do this all the time. They pull together intelligence from various sources and have many analysts write up projections, and forecasts as well as suggested actions that the government should take. In the US the intelligence deemed most important is consolidated and written up to be included in the Presidents Daily Brief. Governments are secretive about what they actually think about most events. Only those forecasts that provide the government with a strategic advantage are usually released or leaked. Quite a few of these intelligence documents were released to WikiLeaks, though after the US Cracked down on their funding there have been few entities willing to try and fill the void left by the folding Wikileaks.
There is a company called Stratfor Global Intelligence that has carved a niche for itself in the area of providing intelligence assessments and forecasts to businesses and private individuals. Stratfor mines data and news from around the world and compiles them into forecasts that are available to anyone. It can be difficult for a person to read through much of the raw forcasts they provide and find the important pieces. But they do offer daily summaries for subscribers and a weekly and special report that is available to anyone wishing to subscribe to the newsletter.
Disclaimer: I am not affiliated with and am not reimbursed by the Stratfor or any of its affiliated companies to the best of my knowledge. I provide this referral in good faith based on my belief that it provides high quality intelligence services to private entities.