Secret government; an example of this.
What is the history of this notion? Did any famous political philosophers write about cryptarchies? If so, who? What did they say?
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I spent a lot of time in political theory courses, including some time spent with original Greek texts. However, never once did I hear of anything called a "cryptarchy" or any philosopher espousing a kind of secret government.
Personal observation is weak, so here are a few other things to consider:
However, some sources have described kinds of secret governments. For example, Thucydides in The History of the Peloponnesian War describes several revolts and secret governments. One example is Corcyra, where an oligarchy led a revolt against Athens. In modern language, we probably wouldn't call them a "government", but Greek politics at this time was far less institutional, and that label makes more sense. You can find an analysis of this section here (published by Tufts University)