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Can anyone list (with a summarized description) the philosophic, sociological or political thoughts, ideologies or movements which does not believe in or are not agree with government or state? I know a little about Anarchism but it seems that it's mostly anti capitalism.

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    How did you get the impression that anarchism is anti-capitalism? See Anarcho-capitalism – Philipp Aug 21 '16 at 0:14
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    becz his is the first time I hear about Anarcho-capitalism :) :D, I'll read about it – Null Aug 21 '16 at 16:51
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The umbrella term for the idea that a state is unnecessary for a functioning society is Anarchism.

Anarchism implies the complete lack of a control authority, which means there is no way to force people to behave in a specific manner. So the different directions of anarchism are not so much different ideologies but rather different theories about how people would behave without a government. Some, but not all of them prognosticate an anti-capitalist society.

There is for example the theory of Anarcho-Capitalism which claims that a completely unregulated free market is best for society. Any goods and services should be exchanged through unregulated business transactions and no government should intervene by offering services for free, artificially influence prices through taxes or subsidies or making laws which limit who can buy or sell what for what price. This idea is as capitalist as you can get.

Other forms of anarchism which sometimes describe themselves as anti-capitalist are Anarcho-Syndicalism and Collectivist Anarchism. They roughly believe that people in an anarchist society would organize in small, independent groups for economic purposes. You can roughly think of them as companies without an owner where all business decisions are made by voting among the employees. These groups would externally act as capitalist actors on a free market but are internally organized in a non-capitalist and non-hierarchical system. These ideologies are not skeptical of all kinds of capitalism, but only "state capitalism" (governments working for their own monetary gain) and "corporate capitalism" (corporations growing so large that the members have no solidary among them anymore and develop a strict hierarchy).

And then there is the most anti-capitalist idea of anarchism, Anarchist Communism. This theory believes that a society can function when everyone works without compensation according to their abilities and just takes whatever they need from communal warehouses where all produced goods are stored.

There are also countless other variants of anarchism around. Some focus only on specific aspects of life, others are variants of the above or combine elements from multiple schools of thought. For further reading I recommend the Wikipedia article Anarchist schools of thought.

  • A really great answer – Null Aug 21 '16 at 16:54
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    Good summary, but might help to mention Mikhail Bakunin's being instrumental in creating anarchism as a schism within Marx's socialist international. And how anarcho capitalism is by comparison a minority modern movement at odds with the core principles and history. – inappropriateCode Aug 22 '16 at 13:54
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    @inappropriateCode The term anarcho capitalism might be new, but the idea of an unregulated free market is already found in the writings of Adam Smith. And although few politicians would call themselves anarcho-capitalists, there are many who advocate less involvement of the state in economic affairs and a smaller state overall. So even though most of its proponents won't admit it, anarcho-capitalism might currently be the most active and most successful anarchistic movement. – Philipp Aug 22 '16 at 14:01
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    @Philipp that would depend how loosely you're making the difference between "libertarian" and anarcho capitalist? – inappropriateCode Aug 22 '16 at 14:18
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    @inappropriateCode - the foundational concepts differ, imho. The former is about non-aggression, with the opposition to the state being a consequence of NAP (won't even get into the wild and wooly area of various types of libertarianism, many of which fall far short of outright anarchist appoach at rejecting the state wholesale). The latter is about opposition to the state as an axiom – user4012 Aug 23 '16 at 3:12

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