In the USA it's extremely rare for independent or "third party" politicians to win any elections at the national (federal) level; it's almost exclusively Democrats and Republicans. This has been mostly true throughout its history.
However, looking at other democratic countries, this seems to be exceptional. In some countries like the Netherlands, Ireland, and Italy, there are a huge number of different parties that have elected officials in their parliament. In others like Germany and France, there are two big parties, but even there it seems the alternative parties still have some power.
What about the American system causes it to consolidate to just two parties?
EDIT: This question is being marked as a duplicate, so I will be more specific so as to differentiate it. I have noticed that except for France, all of the aforementioned countries have parliamentary systems (i.e. the Head of Government requires a majority in the legislative branch). Does that have something to do with it? Why is France an exception?