6

What kind of country would offer Edward Snowden the most secure asylum? Would it be a country with a strong commitment to human rights? A country that is not on friendly terms with the United States? Or something else?

  • Ricardo Patiño, Ecuador's Minister of Minister of Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Integration said Snowden requested asylum: twitter.com/RicardoPatinoEC/status/348841761684197378 - No idea how "secure" Ecuador is, but I think it's safe to assume Snowden didn't choose the country randomly. – yannis Jun 24 '13 at 11:48
8

Ecuador, apparently.

Ecuador has an established tradition of granting succor to those who feel the United States should be open to breaches of National Security. Julian Assange1, the famed Wiki-leaker also had a relationship with the President of Ecuador, and has been holed up in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London since 2012.

While Ecuador does have an extradition treaty with the United States, there is never an obligation to actually enforce it. Rather, if the country is willing to harbor the fugitive, then that is sufficient.

The case of Assange also shows that one need not be an enemy of the US to harbor a fugitive. As long as the country is sympathetic to the plight of the fugitive, that is all that is needed. Typically, there are "points to be earned" by standing up to the "Yankee imperialist" so politically, it is expedient to do this when there is no percepatable harm to the receiving country. Had Snowden been a kidnapper or a pedophile or common criminal (the far more common case of extradition) then Snowden's options would be far more limited — but in this case, having such a safe way to poke Uncle Sam in the eye is a useful win-win for both Snowden and Correa.


1Note: Technically, Assange is wanted in Sweden to answer for a rape charge, although some feel that to be politically motivated. The fear on Assange's part is that in answering for his crimes in Sweden, Sweden may then choose to extradite him to the United States for his role in the WikiLeaks scandal. As such, in granting asylum to Assange, who is reputed to be a friend of Correa, Correa is able to take up the mantle of "standing up to the United States" at minimal cost.

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  • 4
    More precisely, the claimed fear on Assange's part is as you describe. I have always found this odd, because Assange was already in the UK, which is far more willing to extradite people to the USA than Sweden. – Martin Bonner supports Monica Jan 11 '18 at 16:01
  • @AffableGeek There are no rape charges, Assange was never charged with anything. Assange offered to go to Sweden if either Sweden promised not to surrender him to the US, or if the US promised not to ask for his extradition, they both refused. – user19087 Jan 15 '18 at 1:59
  • @user19087 thats rather an interesting take on the situation - Assange hasn't been charged because thats not how the Swedish system works, but the British courts have ruled that the situation is equivalent to charges being brought, so the arrest warrant is not invalid because of the lack of charges. Assange doesn't get to "offer" anything - a valid extradition warrant was issued, a valid extradition order was granted, Assange became a fugitive from justice and now he's in custody. Nothing about the extradition warrant or order was contingent on Assanges conditions. – Moo Jul 2 '19 at 1:34
3

There are a quite a few countries that don't have extradition treaties with the U.S. but it doesn't offer a guarantee against capture, but it makes it much harder. Its still possible to be extradited without a treaty in place, but that process relies heavily on foreign relations so countries not friendly with the U.S. are the best choices. Ecuador has shown resistance to returning Julian Assange for similar crimes. Some other countries that do have treaties may be somewhat same due to the process of extradition being a bureaucratic nightmare and extremely slow (Hong Kong). The real problem is find a country willing to accept you and grant you a visa, even then you rely entirely on their good graces. Alternatively it could be possible to sneak into a country and lay low, but that possibility has likely passed for Snowden.

The United States currently has bilateral extradition agreements with the following countries:

     Country          Date signed      Entered into        Citation   
                                           force                      
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Albania            Mar. 1, 1933      Nov. 14, 1935     49 Stat. 3313. 
Antigua and        June 3, 1996      July 1, 1999      TIAS.          
 Barbuda                                                              
Argentina          June 10, 1997     June 15, 2000     TIAS 12866.    
Australia          Dec. 22, 1931     Aug. 30, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   May 14, 1974      May 8, 1976       27 UST 957.    
                   Sept. 4, 1990     Dec. 21, 1992     1736 UNTS 344. 
Austria            Jan. 8, 1998      Jan. 1, 2000      TIAS 12916.    
                   July 20, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Bahamas            Mar. 9, 1990      Sept. 22, 1994    TIAS.          
Barbados           Feb. 28, 1996     Mar. 3, 2000      TIAS.          
Belgium            Apr. 27, 1987     Sept. 1, 1997     TIAS.          
                   Dec. 16, 2004     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Belize             Mar. 30, 2000     Mar. 27, 2001     TIAS.          
Bolivia            June 27, 1995     Nov. 21, 1996     TIAS.          
Brazil             Jan. 13, 1961     Dec. 17, 1964     15 UST 2093.   
                   June 18, 1962     Dec. 17, 1964     15 UST 2112.   
Bulgaria           Mar. 19, 1924     June 24, 1924     43 Stat. 1886. 
                   June 8, 1934      Aug. 15, 1935     49 Stat. 3250. 
                   Sept. 19, 2007    May 21, 2009                     
Burma              Dec. 22, 1931     Nov. 1, 1941      47 Stat. 2122. 
Canada             Dec. 3, 1971      Mar. 22, 1976     27 UST 983.    
                   June 28, July     Mar. 22, 1976     27 UST 1017.   
                    9, 1974                                           
                   Jan. 11, 1988     Nov. 26, 1991     TIAS.          
                   Jan. 12, 2001     Apr. 30, 2003                    
Chile              Apr. 17, 1900     June 26, 1902     32 Stat. 1850. 
Colombia           Sept. 14, 1979    Mar. 4, 1982      TIAS.          
Congo              Jan. 6, 1909      July 27, 1911     37 Stat. 1526. 
 (Brazzaville)                                                        
                   Jan. 15, 1929                                      
                   Apr. 23, 1936                                      
                                     May 19, 1929                     
                                     Sept. 24, 1936                   
                                                       46 Stat. 2276. 
                                                       50 Stat. 1117. 
Costa Rica         Dec. 4, 1982      Oct. 11, 1991     TIAS.          
Cuba               Apr. 6, 1904      Mar. 2, 1905      33 Stat. 2265. 
                   Dec. 6, 1904      Mar. 2, 1905      33 Stat. 2273. 
                   Jan. 14, 1926     June 18, 1926     44 Stat. 2392. 
Cyprus             June 17, 1996     Sept. 14, 1999    TIAS.          
                   Jan. 20, 2006     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Czech Republic     July 2, 1925      Mar. 29, 1926     44 Stat. 2367. 
 (!1)                                                                 
                   Apr. 29, 1935                                      
                                     Aug. 28, 1935                    
                                                       49 Stat. 3253. 
                   May 16, 2006      Feb. 1, 2010                     
Denmark            June 22, 1972     July 31, 1974     25 UST 1293.   
                   June 23, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Dominica           Oct. 10, 1996     May 25, 2000      TIAS.          
Dominican          June 19, 1909     Aug. 2, 1910      36 Stat. 2468. 
 Republic                                                             
Ecuador            June 28, 1872     Nov. 12, 1873     18 Stat. 199.  
                   Sept. 22, 1939    May 29, 1941      55 Stat. 1196. 
Egypt              Aug. 11, 1874     Apr. 22, 1875     19 Stat. 572.  
El Salvador        Apr. 18, 1911     July 10, 1911     37 Stat. 1516. 
Estonia            Nov. 8, 1923      Nov. 15, 1924     43 Stat. 1849. 
                   Oct. 10, 1934     May 7, 1935       49 Stat. 3190. 
                   Feb. 8, 2006      Apr. 7, 2009                     
European Union     June 25, 2003     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Fiji               Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   July 14, 1972,    Aug. 17, 1973     24 UST 1965.   
                    Aug. 17, 1973                                     
Finland            June 11, 1976     May 11, 1980      31 UST 944.    
                   Dec. 16, 2004     Feb. 1, 2010                     
France             Apr. 23, 1996     Feb. 1, 2002      TIAS.          
                   Sept. 30, 2004    Feb. 1, 2010                     
Gambia             Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Germany            June 20, 1978     Aug. 29, 1980     32 UST 1485.   
                   Oct. 21, 1986     Mar. 11, 1993     TIAS.          
                   Apr. 18, 2006     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Ghana              Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Greece             May 6, 1931       Nov. 1, 1932      47 Stat. 2185. 
                   Sept. 2, 1937     Sept. 2, 1937     51 Stat. 357.  
                   Jan. 18, 2006     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Grenada            May 30, 1996      Sept. 14, 1999    TIAS.          
Guatemala          Feb. 27, 1903     Aug. 15, 1903     33 Stat. 2147. 
                   Feb. 20, 1940     Mar. 13, 1941     55 Stat. 1097. 
Guyana             Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Haiti              Aug. 9, 1904      June 28, 1905     34 Stat. 2858. 
Honduras           Jan. 15, 1909     July 10, 1912     37 Stat. 1616. 
                   Feb. 21, 1927     June 5, 1928      45 Stat. 2489. 
Hong Kong          Dec. 20, 1996     Jan. 21, 1998     TIAS.          
Hungary            Dec. 1, 1994      Mar. 18, 1997     TIAS.          
                   Nov. 15, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Iceland            Jan. 6, 1902      May 16, 1902      32 Stat. 1096. 
                   Nov. 6, 1905      Feb. 19, 1906     34 Stat. 2887. 
India              June 25, 1997     July 21, 1999     TIAS 12873.    
Iraq               June 7, 1934      Apr. 23, 1936     49 Stat. 3380. 
Ireland            July 13, 1983     Dec. 15, 1984     TIAS 10813.    
                   July 14, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Israel             Dec. 10, 1962     Dec. 5, 1963      14 UST         
                                                        1707.(!2)     
                   July 6, 2005      Jan. 10, 2007                    
Italy              Oct. 13, 1983     Sept. 24, 1984    35 UST 3023.   
                   May 3, 2006       Feb. 1, 2010                     
Jamaica            June 14, 1983     July 7, 1991      TIAS.          
Japan              Mar. 3, 1978      Mar. 26, 1980     31 UST 892.    
Jordan             Mar. 28, 1995     July 29, 1995     TIAS.          
Kenya              Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   May 14, Aug.      Aug. 19, 1965     16 UST 1866.   
                    19, 1965                                          
Kiribati           June 8, 1972      Jan. 21, 1977     28 UST 227.    
Latvia             Oct. 16, 1923     Mar. 1, 1924      43 Stat. 1738. 
                   Oct. 10, 1934     Mar. 29, 1935     49 Stat. 3131. 
                   Dec. 7, 2005      Apr. 15, 2009                    
Lesotho            Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Liberia            Nov. 1, 1937      Nov. 21, 1939     54 Stat. 1733. 
Liechtenstein      May 20, 1936      June 28, 1937     50 Stat. 1337. 
Lithuania          Oct. 23, 2001     Mar. 31, 2003     TIAS 13166.    
                   June 15, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Luxembourg         Oct. 1, 1996      Feb. 1, 2002      TIAS 12804.    
                   Feb. 1, 2005      Feb. 1, 2010                     
Malawi             Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   Dec. 17, 1966,    Apr. 4, 1967      18 UST 1822.   
                    Jan. 6, Apr. 4,                                   
                    1967                                              
Malaysia           Aug. 3, 1995      June 2, 1997      TIAS.          
Malta              Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   May 18, 2006      July 1, 2009                     
Marshall Islands   Apr. 30, 2003     May 1, 2004                      
Mauritius          Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Mexico             May 4, 1978       Jan. 25, 1980     31 UST 5059.   
                   Nov. 13, 1997     May 21, 2001      TIAS 12897.    
Micronesia,        May 14, 2003      June 25, 2004                    
 Federated States                                                     
 of                                                                   
Monaco             Feb. 15, 1939     Mar. 28, 1940     54 Stat. 1780. 
Nauru              Dec. 22, 1931     Aug. 30, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Netherlands        June 24, 1980     Sept. 15, 1983    35 UST 1334.   
                   Sept. 29, 2004    Feb. 1, 2010                     
New Zealand        Jan. 12, 1970     Dec. 8, 1970      22 UST 1.      
Nicaragua          Mar. 1, 1905      July 14, 1907     35 Stat. 1869. 
Nigeria            Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Norway             June 9, 1977      Mar. 7, 1980      31 UST 5619.   
Pakistan           Dec. 22, 1931     Mar. 9, 1942      47 Stat. 2122. 
Panama             May 25, 1904      May 8, 1905       34 Stat. 2851. 
Papua New Guinea   Dec. 22, 1931     Aug. 30, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   Feb. 2, 23, 1988  Feb. 23, 1988     TIAS.          
Paraguay           Nov. 9, 1998      Mar. 9, 2001      TIAS 12995.    
Peru               July 26, 2001     Aug. 25, 2003                    
Philippines        Nov. 13, 1994     Nov. 22, 1996     TIAS.          
Poland             July 10, 1996     Sept. 17, 1999    TIAS.          
                   June 9, 2006      Feb. 1, 2010                     
Portugal           May 7, 1908       Nov. 14, 1908     35 Stat. 2071. 
                   July 14, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Romania            July 23, 1924     Apr. 7, 1925      44 Stat. 2020. 
                   Nov. 10, 1936     July 27, 1937     50 Stat. 1349. 
                   Sept. 10, 2007    May 8, 2009                      
Saint Kitts and    Sept. 18, 1996    Feb. 23, 2000     TIAS 12805.    
 Nevis                                                                
Saint Lucia        Apr. 18, 1996     Feb. 2, 2000      TIAS.          
Saint Vincent      Aug. 15, 1996     Sept. 8, 1999     TIAS.          
 and the                                                              
 Grenadines                                                           
San Marino         Jan. 10, 1906     July 8, 1908      35 Stat. 1971. 
                   Oct. 10, 1934     June 28, 1935     49 Stat. 3198. 
Seychelles         Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Sierra Leone       Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Singapore          Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   Apr. 23, June     June 10, 1969     20 UST 2764.   
                    10, 1969                                          
Slovakia (!1)      July 2, 1925      Mar. 29, 1926     44 Stat. 2367. 
                   Apr. 29, 1935                                      
                   Feb. 6, 2006                                       
                                     Aug. 28, 1935                    
                                     Feb. 1, 2010                     
                                                       49 Stat. 3253. 
Slovenia (!1)      Oct. 17, 2005     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Solomon Islands    June 8, 1972      Jan. 21, 1977     28 UST 277.    
South Africa       Sept. 16, 1999    June 25, 2001     TIAS.          
South Korea        June 9, 1998      Dec. 20, 1999     TIAS 12962.    
Spain              May 29, 1970      June 16, 1971     22 UST 737.    
                   Jan. 25, 1975     June 2, 1978      29 UST 2283.   
                   Feb. 9, 1988      July 2, 1993      TIAS.          
                   Mar. 12, 1996     July 25, 1999     TIAS.          
                   Dec. 17, 2004     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Sri Lanka          Sept. 30, 1999    Jan. 12, 2001     TIAS.          
Suriname           June 2, 1887      July 11, 1889     26 Stat. 1481. 
                   Jan. 18, 1904     Aug. 28, 1904     33 Stat. 2257. 
Swaziland          Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   May 13, July      July 28, 1970     21 UST 1930.   
                    28, 1970                                          
Sweden             Oct. 24, 1961     Dec. 3, 1963      14 UST 1845.   
                   Mar. 14, 1983     Sept. 24, 1984    35 UST 2501.   
                   Dec. 16, 2004     Feb. 1, 2010                     
Switzerland        Nov. 14, 1990     Sept. 10, 1997    TIAS.          
Tanzania           Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
                   Nov. 30, Dec.     Dec. 6, 1965      16 UST 2066.   
                    6, 1965                                           
Thailand           Dec. 14, 1983     May 17, 1991      TIAS.          
Tonga              Dec. 22, 1931     Aug. 1, 1966      47 Stat. 2122. 
                   Mar. 14, Apr.     Apr. 13, 1977     28 UST 5290.   
                    13, 1977                                          
Trinidad and       Mar. 4, 1996      Nov. 29, 1999     TIAS.          
 Tobago                                                               
Turkey             June 7, 1979      Jan. 1, 1981      32 UST 3111.   
Tuvalu             June 8, 1972      Jan. 21, 1977     28 UST 227.    
                                     Apr. 25, 1980     32 UST 1310.   
United Kingdom     Mar. 31, 2003     Apr. 26, 2007                    
                   Dec. 16, 2004                                      
                                     Feb. 1, 2010                     

Uruguay            Apr. 6, 1973      Apr. 11, 1984     35 UST 3197.   
Venezuela          Jan. 19, 21,      Apr. 14, 1923     43 Stat. 1698. 
                    1922                                              
Yugoslavia (!1)    Oct. 25, 1901     June 12, 1902     32 Stat. 1890. 
Zambia             Dec. 22, 1931     June 24, 1935     47 Stat. 2122. 
Zimbabwe           July 25, 1997     Apr. 26, 2000                    

  (!1) Status of agreements with successor states of Czechoslovakia
and Yugoslavia is under review; inquire of the Treaty Office of the
United States Department of State.
  (!2) Typographical error corrected by diplomatic notes exchanged
Apr. 4 and 11, 1967. See 18 UST 382, 383.

source *this appears to be updated 1/3/12, but i'm not sure all countries listed are still actively upholding treaties (ie Cuba).

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  • 2
    "resistance to returning Julian Assange for similar crimes" [citation needed] – Andrew Grimm Jun 24 '13 at 13:11
  • @AndrewGrimm which part? The harboring Assange, covered in the Wikipedia link in Affable Geek's answer, or the fact both leaked classified documents which should be obvious. – Ryathal Jun 24 '13 at 13:18
  • 4
    Currently, he's wanted by a country other than the United States, and the allegations he's facing are not leaking-related. Now, his leaking may be why Ecuador is granting him asylum, but that's another matter... – Andrew Grimm Jun 24 '13 at 13:22
  • Source? And I'm surprised that Cuba and North Korea seem to have an extradition treaty with the USA... – Martin Schröder Jun 26 '13 at 18:58
  • 1
    @MartinSchröder updated my answer and flipped to countries with a treaty, much better sourcing and may be a bit more up to date. – Ryathal Jun 26 '13 at 21:34
2

I suggest a country where the government or at least, ideology is not a subject of frequent change and which has principled people at power (as opposed to those who are likely to trade their convictions for some bounties from the USA). I think the best choice would be Cuba. North Korea is worse because it seems they can give up due to pressure. Iran is subject to government change which is a risk.

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0

Note: for the purpose of this answer I am assuming that the discussed countries have all found ways to make the legalities work out.

I would say a European country that supports him would be best, they have some of the most stable governments in the world (excluding parts of eastern Europe). England is out, their government is against him and even the journalists who released his information. France would be bad for him too, they have their own NSA-like program personal encryption is banned there; and he uses encryption frequently. Germany would be a good place for him, their government is very displeased by the NSA, and they are very technology oriented country (Which may be part of why they are so against the NSA spying, people who work in technology or study it often tend to oppose the NSA in high rates - sorry I can't find the source article for this.) so he would have plenty of potential employers.

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0

Northern Cyprus.

FREEDOM FROM COURT DANGERS:

United States' Federal Court: "Although the United States does not recognize it as a state, the TRNC purportedly operates as a DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC with a president, prime minister, legislature and judiciary...TRNC is NOT VULNERABLE to a lawsuit in Washington"

The news of the Court Decision (13.10.2014)
Page of the Court case
Decision of the Court

Just like USA, Northern Cyprus cannot be sued in any of the country in the world.

Till now, we get rid of "193 countries of the world".

Now, any combination of these countries, international courts...?

Think PCJ (Permanent Court of Justice) of the United Nations that is highest legal authority in the world. In order to apply PCJ, both of the countries that are in troubly MUST apply; individual applications are not allowed. In case of USA and Northern Cyprus, as far as NC doesn't allow the cases to be settled in PCJ, NOTHING happens.

FREEDOM ENVIRONMENT IN NORTHERN CYPRUS:
Northern Cyprus is very very free country. This fact is emphazised everywhere:
Freedom House 2017: Northern Cyprus is among the MOST FREE countries in the world.

Northern Cyprus is 10th country in receiving international students (with 80.000 international students).

Snowden can start to life as a student like all of us!

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  • 2
    Errm, TRNC cannot be sued because, legally, it doesn't exist as far as the World is concerned. Turkey illegally occupies Northern Cyprus as far as any country but Turkey is concerned. So you'd sue Turkey if you want anything to happen in NC. – janh Jan 10 '18 at 19:15
-1

Well, what about Iran? As far as I know Iran hates the US.

There could be a possibility that he is a double agent or something else.

Don't forget that he spent a lot of time in Hawaii, where the surveillance of China happens.

But, anyway he will probably land in Ecuador or stay in Russia.

Iceland is out, in my opinion.

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  • yeah, but what if he's gay? They hang gays on the lampposts in the streets you know... Well, on cranes actually. – Genli Ai Jul 3 '13 at 17:43

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