A first-past-the-post election can have a spoiler effect, where people vote strategically for one of the larger parties because their actually preferred party has only a very small chance of winning. Ranked voting system have been proposed to mitigate this effect, in some cases (combined with multi-member constituencies) mimicking proportional representation.
Most elections with proportional representation apply a threshold that is usually within the range of 2–6%. This can also lead to a spoiler effect, as in some elections, large parts of the population voted for parties that failed to reach the threshold and were thus not represented (both Russia 1995 and Turkey 2002 this was more than 40%).
Are there any elections that use party-list proportional representation, but also include an option in which voters can express their 2nd/3rd/4th preferred party lists, to which their vote would be transferred in the event that their preferred party would fail to reach the threshold?