"Politology" describes the study of politics. However, it is not synonymous with "political science".
Politology is different than political science in a few ways:
- Politology is the study of politics, but is not necessarily scientific. As a matter of practice, much of the work of academic political "scientists" is not science at all (such as the now popular critical theory) (JoP, 8:2).
- Politology uses a similar naming convention to other areas of social research, such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc. These areas are (at times) also non-scientific. (see the footnote on the first page of this)
Finally, it is something of a regional term. Although uncommon in the United States, it is more common in Europe. For example, the University of Rzeszow in Poland has a Department of Politology as a part of their sociology and history faculty.
This may be true for strictly linguistic reasons, but European academics are less likely to study politics in a scientific way, unlike the American political scientists. This is all just to say that they are not referring to the same thing, but different academic disciplines that study the same object.