Indian Constitution has something called 'basic structure', defined by Basic Structure Doctrine. This doctrine is based on, and evolved from, the Supreme Court of India's decision in the most celebrated case of Keshavanada Bharti, 1972 (The case that saved Indian democracy - THE HINDU). This doctrine says that the Indian Constitution has some basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament.
This theory in India was first introduced by Justice Mudholkar in 1964, by referring to a 1963 decision of the Supreme Court of Pakistan in which Chief Justice Cornelius held that the President of Pakistan could not alter the “fundamental features” of their Constitution. So:
- Does any other constitution have such basic or fundamental features defined by legislature or judiciary?
- Other than India and in Pakistan (before 1963), are there any major and historical cases in which a Supreme Court, or the highest court the country had, declared that such and such part(s) of the constitution cannot be amended? If yes, in which cases?
- Does any constitution itself have articles defining its own 'basic features'?