This article briefly explains about EU infringements and the accompanying fines:
Law is the foundation of the integrity and effectiveness of the European Union, so fines for breaking it are set high enough to stop other states being tempted to try their luck. Penalties can stretch into the million of euros. [..]
When a Member State breaches EU law, the European Commission refers the case to the Court of Justice of the EU. The first judgment of the Court serves as the final call for the country to comply with EU law.
If a government still won’t comply with the law – what then?
The Commission may once again take the case to the Court, this time to impose fines.
The list of infringements is quite large as seen here.
On several occasions, I have seen these infringements treated as deadly threats in my native countries: extraordinary Parliamentary sessions to change the law, even government emergency ordinances in more extreme cases.
Question: is there a case when a fine was partly paid by someone who could have acted to avoid the fine? (e.g. one of the ministers fails to implement some law change within his/her ministry). Or is this impossible due to legislative or sovereign immunity?