These policies are examples of what the academic literature calls industrial policy. As the relevant Wikipedia article states, such policies "are interventionist measures typical of mixed economy countries." Given that China still claims to be a socialist economy and Western countries do not, it is hardly surprising that China is more willing and able to enact such policies. Quoting again from the same article:
China is one of the most prominent cases where the central and subnational governments still intervene in nearly all economic sectors and processes. Even though market mechanisms have gained in importance, the state control prevails. [emphasis added]
In recent decades, more highly interventionist industrial policies have also been typical of newly industrializing countries, especially in East Asia. Japan and South Korea are prominent examples. Based on these and other examples, we might expect that as China's economy matures, it should gradually become more open to foreign competition or face stagnation. Quoting again from Wikipedia, "contemporary industry policy generally accepts globalisation as a given, and focuses less on the decline of older industries, and more on the growth of emergent industries." In China, many basic industries are still emerging, while in the West they are already mature and competitive.
For a detailed account of how China's modern industrial policies have developed, see "The Rise of Industrial Policy in China, 1978-2012" by Sebastian Heilmann and Lea Shih.
Here is a totally separate point, which is more directly relevant to the question, but also a bit speculative. Western countries, particularly the United States, don't seem all that interested in trying to penetrate the Chinese economy in the first place. While trade with China is important, they may not see a lot of opportunities to compete in the large and complex emerging market of China. This is most clearly reflected in China's exclusion from the TPP.