In the U.S., what does it precisely mean that federal courts have limited jurisdiction? I ask because I'm unsure that they cannot hears cases in which the president or the Congress are involved.
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The term "jurisdiction" means "the power to make official legal decisions and judgements". When a court has limited jurisdiction, that court can only hear certain types of cases. For example, a bankruptcy court can normally only hear bankruptcy cases, and thus has limited jurisdiction.
Federal courts have limited jurisdiction in that only certain types of cases can be heard in them:
To determine whether a case can be heard or not (assuming an actual case has been initiated by some party), the following must apply:
There is a very readable article on the US Courts website covering more details about jurisdiction (and was the source for my lists above).