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To my understanding, in order for some landmass to function as a part of a country, three items are important:

  1. a common constitutional framework
  2. collaborative revenue management
  3. military bases

As a member of a federation, a landmass can abide by any one or more of these factors.

A common constitution can take care of judiciary, parliamentary representation, and so on. The collection of taxes benefits the federation and federal subjects. Military bases benefit the federation to project power.

Now, my question is, how are China and Hong Kong sharing these factors? Or, are they really sharing anything? If not, how is Hong Kong considered as a part of China?

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    The first item is rather vague, and the last two are certainly false.You do not need tax revenue and/or a miitary base in each island that belongs to your nation, many nations include desert islands with no revenue and no military. I think the last part of the question is valid, but the first one only serves to confuse readers. – SJuan76 May 18 '17 at 20:50
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When determining whether something is part of a country, by far the most important question is Does the country control the area?

A secondary question might be whether that control is accepted by the international community - usually called "recognition."

In the case of China and Hong Kong, both answers are clearly answered with 'yes.' Therefore, Hong Kong is part of China.

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