On May 25, 2017, the NYTimes writes:
The federal appeals court in Richmond, Va., on Thursday refused to reinstate President Trump's revised travel ban, saying it discriminated on the basis of religion.
My layman understanding is that the court claims the Executive Order 13780 violates the First Amendment. But the target scope of the Executive Order, by design, is not the people already physically in the US. So what is the target scope of the US Constitution? For example, the First Amendment says
Amendment I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Whose freedom of religion, speech, press, and right to assembly is this referring to?
p.s. There are other issues that are unclear to me: (i) the First Amendment refers to "Congress shall make no law ..." and this is an Executive Order and (ii) how restricting migration or travel to the US affects the "establishment of religion" or the "free exercise" of religion of people in their original countries. I would appreciate if an answer could incorporate these elements but the only question of this post is the one stated and clarified in the main text above.