One book, often used in political science classes to demonstrate how the legislative process works from an up close and personal ethnographic perspective is Showdown at Gucci Gulch about the legislative process involved in a major tax reform bill. It is getting a bit dated, but its process observations are still useful for the kind of question you are asking.
In general, biographical accounts of politicians and recent history accounts of legislative actions (including decisions about going to war) are particular likely to have this kind of account, but there are few anthologies about politicians changing their minds in response to public opinion, in general. You have to look on a person by person and law by law basis for the most part. Some recommended books on the subject can be found here.
I would also note that the historical time period involved is highly relevant. There have between basically a few major historical changes in how Congress conducts its business, one in association with the Civil War and Reconstruction, another in association with the New Deal, and a third in connection with the Civil Rights era, each of which was associated with an expansion of the scope of the federal goverment and an accompanying greater professionalization and increasingly formal and bureaucratic legislative process.
Prior to the Civil War, much more of the actual legislative decision making process was made on the floor of the House and Senate respectively. Now, much of the decision making has been banished to subcommittees, committees, and backroom deal making, and the actual proceedings on the floor of the House and Senate are largely a pre-scripted Kabuki drama.