I'm interested in the effects of the different voting system over the result of an election.

In Proportional Representation, some countries allow voter to remove the name of a candidate from a list and/or to cross the name(s) of some candidate(s) and to replace them with other which is named "panachage".

When using such a system, how does the counting work ? Does the order of the candidates on the list still matters ?

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    Can you identify an examples of places where this option is actually available? I imagine that there is one than one possible answer and that each jurisdiction that adopts it has their own rule.
    – ohwilleke
    Jun 15 '17 at 20:38
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    @ohwilleke AFAIK Switzerland and Lichtenstein use both panachage and removal. France use panachage only for municipal elections in small town and it is available in most elections in Luxembourg. Not sure if it's often used in the USA. Jun 16 '17 at 7:33
  • Not used in the U.S. and your comment makes it easier to figure it out by looking at the relevant election laws (alas, not something I have easy access to myself).
    – ohwilleke
    Jun 19 '17 at 17:03

In Switzerland, voters will vote for a list of candidates, not necessarily for a party. So if, in a three-member constituency, I vote for Party A without any modifications, that will count as one vote for candidate A1, one for A2, and one for A3. However, if I decide to remove A2 and replace them with B1, then my vote will count as one vote for A1, one for A3, and one for B1.

When allocating seats to parties, the total votes for all candidates in the party will be combined, and selected system for seat allocation (Hagenbach-Bischoff in Switzerland's case). For this purpose, my modified vote will count as 2 votes for Party A and 1 vote for Party B.

Once the number of seats is determined for each party, the n candidates with the most votes in that party will take their seats.

See here for a fuller example.

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