Has there been a state without an office satisfying the definition of a head of state? This question is mostly about the modern times because I'm not sure if we can give a satisfactory definition for outdated political systems. Please feel free to comment on this, but still the main focus of this question is on the modern world.

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    Would Andorra count? It has two heads of state, together (the co-princes). – TRiG Jan 12 '13 at 19:12
  • I'm sure I could google some headless heads of state. Would that count? – Andrew Grimm Jun 18 '13 at 4:21
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    @myself forget that, in December 1967, Australia not only lacked the head, but the entire body! – Andrew Grimm Feb 9 '17 at 11:25
  • If I recall correctly, most members of the state lost their heads during the French Revolution! – holaymolay Dec 21 '19 at 1:30

Switzerland lacks a single head of state, though the members of the 7-head government take it in turns to represent the country as such abroad during the 7-year government term. See also Wikipedia on Politics of Switzerland.

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While the U.S. was under the Articles of Confederation, the President of The United States in Congress Assembled was not a head of state. Instead, the role was to ensure impartiality of the congress and enforcement of rules. Articles of Confederation, Presidents of the Congress

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In the USSR the head of state was collective: the Presidium of Supreme Council. The state was usually represented and laws signed by the Chairman of the Presidium, but he actually did not have any powers: if he would refuse to sign a law for instance, it would be signed by his deputy.

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