Socialism: This includes a number of different things. Karl Marx described socialism as the class dictatorship of the proletariat. For Marxism, socialism is a transitionary period, in which classes and state may exist, to the communism, when classes and the state will disappear. There will be a type of law, there will not be much more freedom than there exists under capitalism, unlike what will be the case in communism - the stateless, classless society. Although Venezuela is not a dictatorship of the proletariat, leaders like Hugo Chavez may, on the other hand, call themselves socialist. This is a non-Marxist socialism or revisionism.
Another main principle of socialism is from each according to their ability, to all according to their deeds.
Dictatorship of the Proletariat: The counter of the bourgeois dictatorship - just like how, in capitalism, bourgeois exercise dictatorship over the proletariat, in the dictatorship of the proletariat, proletariat will exercise a dictatorship over the bourgeois. Proletariat will use this tool of oppression, state mechanism, i.e., proletariat themselves organised as the state, for the elimination of property, classes and state.
Marxist theory of state holds that it is there to suppress the irrecognisable class antagonism and with the disappearances of class differences, the state will disappear too.
Communism: Differently from socialism, in communism, from each according to their ability, to each according to their needs is the main principle. Communism is the stage in which the state, property, money, etc., are eliminated. National barriers fade and so on.
Leninism: Leninism, or Marxism-Leninism as used today, takes a more voluntarist approach to Marxism and puts it into practice - revolution. The label is there due to splits between Lenin and Bolsheviks, and the reformist Marxists on the one hand and other so-called orthodox Marxists like on the other.
Stalinism and Trotskyism: Due to a historical split between Stalin and Trotsky, these names came to rise. Although Stalin always described himself a Marxist-Leninist and today Stalinists call themselves Marxist-Leninists, the label is to separate the advocates of Stalin's theories and actions than the Marxist-Leninists who do not, as well as Trotskyists.
On the theoretical side, Stalin claimed that Soviet Union was experiencing socialism in one country while Trotsky claimed it was, instead, degenerated workers state. Best information on this split can be found in Stalin's congress speeches and Trotsky's Revolution Betrayed.
Maoism: Following the Sino-Soviet split, orthodox Marxist-Leninists who denounced the Soviet revisionism found themselves in the so-called Maoist bloc. Differently from the Marxist-Leninists who denounced the Soviet Union but did not pronounce Mao Zedong Thought, the Maoists attempted a revolution relying on the population of peasants, a revolution from the country to the urban. Other Marxist-Leninists who were not on the Maoist bloc (and mind you, I am not referring with Marxist-Leninists to the pro-Soviet folk - I would never call them Marxist-Leninists) had a split from the Maoists, arguing their respective countries' situations were more similar to Russia in 1917 than China, and a revolution would preferably start in the urban.
Mao's opportunism and Hoxhaism: In the 70's, Mao and Chinese Communist Party began adhering to a theory called Three Worlds Theory, which held that superpowers were the first world, their allies (developed nations) the second and the developing nations (their colonies or otherwise independent poor countries) were the Third World. Third Worldism held, that Third World had to unite against this imperialist attitude towards itself and under the adherence of the TWT, Chinese Communist Party celebrated numerous fascists, dictators, etc., in the Third World for their anti-Sovietisms. Mao, as it was clear by now, was collaborating with the United States. Mao supported Pol Pot against the Vietnamese and the Soviets, Pinochet in Latin America, etc...
Denouncing Mao's opportunism, Enver Hoxha in Albania split from the Chinese Communist Party. (Sino-Albanian split.) Now, orthodox communist parties were, whether they called themselves Maoists or Hoxhaists, naturally on the so-called Hoxhaist bloc. Orthodox Marxist-Leninists of the old who were always ready to betray Marxism-Leninism had, on the other hand, found themselves on Mao's and later Deng Xiaoping's side. (Today, such so-called Marxists defend North Korea, China, Vietnam, etc., are socialist states. Historically, they denounced the socialist uprising against the Chinese government in 1990s - Tianenmen Square Massacre - and supported the government's violent suppression of the protests.)
Hoxha's primary contributions to Marxism and Marxism-Leninism are, today, his reflections on imperialism and (on the Soviet Union's side) social imperialism.