Another concept very useful here is one usually drummed in by Freakonomics (books and podcasts) - incentive following (with very specific application of it being "Cobra effect".)
If you incentivize something, people usually/likely WILL follow that incentive and change their behavior.
The problem is of course that it's not always (or even usually) clear what the incentivization will be OF, and what the changes will be - and the bad part is, humans are both lazy and inventive and will find loopholes in the rules to get the cheapest bang for the buck by thinking WAAAAAY outside the box.
The quintessential example is rat extermination fee example (I think it was in India but don't have the link off-hand). Government wanted to get rid of rats. By paying for dead rats.
Desired incentive mechanism: people kill rats, to get money for dead rats. Result: less rats.
Actual outcome: first, people bred rats (that's what's called "abusing the mechanism"). So, the feral rat population didn't decrease, as people simply killed rats they bred, in comfort of their environment; instead of going to hunt and kill feral rats.
Worse later outcome: later, when the government realized the policy was just wasting money with no good outcome, they stopped the payments. Guess what happened to rat farmers? Yep, as there was no more money in rat farming, they released all their bred rats into the city. Because, there weren't already enough rats to plague the populace.
P.S. Found the reference - it's "The Cobra Effect" Freakonomics podcast episode - the rat thing was actually in Hanoi and the India example was cobras.
MEHROTRA: So the “cobra effect” refers to a scheme in colonial India where the British governor, or whoever, the person in charge in Delhi, wanted to rid Delhi of cobras. Apparently in his opinion there were too many cobras in Delhi. So he had the bounty placed on cobras. And he expected this would solve the problem. But the population in Delhi, at least some of it, responded by farming cobras. And all of a sudden the administration was getting too many cobra skins. And they decided the scheme wasn’t as smart as initially it appeared and they rescinded the scheme. But by then the cobra farmers had this little population of cobras to deal with. And what do you do if there’s no market? You just release them. And so this significantly, by a few orders of magnitude, worsened the cobra menace in Delhi.
The above-mentioned rat episode was taken from Michael Vann talk about his research, captured in “Of Rats, Rice, and Race: The Great Hanoi Rat Massacre, an Episode in French Colonial History”.