2

In the legislative systems I know individual politicians always have a single vote, although in some cases they may influence other members votes behind the scenes. In the Netherlands it is possible for a single politician to control an entire party (Geet Wilders) but this still doesn't confer extra votes to that person.

Are there any systems in which a single person can cast more than one vote? Say, it is possible to get elected from two districts at the same time or perhaps certain districts have a bigger vote share for their representatives.

3

In the German Bundesrat, provinces have 3 to 6 votes that must be casted as a single bloc. In practice, provinces nominate as many delegates as they have votes and they often vote by a show of hands.

But if there is a roll call, one of them (the Stimmf├╝hrer) will cast all the votes for his or her province. Furthermore, the presence of all the delegates is not required. When others are absent, a single delegate can still cast all the votes of the province and de facto has several votes.

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1

I'm not aware of any where some voters can cast more than one ballot in their own name. But there are historical examples that used weighted voting at points in time - that is, countries where some voters' votes were more equal than others'.

Historical examples include:

  • Ancient Rome (where the weight was tied to wealth)
  • Sweden until the end of WW1 (where some companies could vote, thus giving their owners more votes)

And to a lesser degree, since these are about segregating by class or race first and foremost:

  • A few French colonies (where locals had the same number of representatives as the French)
  • Southern Rhodesia (de jure segregated voting)

The only current example I'm aware of is the City of London, which is a historical peculiarity within London where companies can still vote - thus giving their owners (and non-residents) more power than locals.

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