Your question's title says 'elected to government' but the body says just 'elected'. This makes things tricky for two reasons - because people may be members of parliament (or in local government) or similar but not actually in government, and because in some countries (like the UK) people are only elected as members of parliament. The government in the UK is appointed by the prime minister (and the prime minister is appointed by the queen, but is almost certainly the leader of the largest party).
There are at least some near misses.
Mikheil Saakashvili was president of Georgia and later the governor of a region of Ukraine - but he was appointed as governor, not elected.
Gerry Adams is currently a member of the Irish parliament, but was previously leader of Sinn Fein in Northern Ireland, a British MP (who didn't take up his seat) and a Northern Ireland assembly member. He has, of course, also been frequently alleged to have been a commander of the IRA terrorist group, but denies this. However, despite having been the leader of a party with ministers in government in Northern Ireland and the leader of his party in one house of parliament in Ireland, he wasn't technically in government. You could also argue that this is a case of a country separating - but this, of course, did not happen during his lifetime.
Commonwealth and Irish citizens can stand for the UK parliament (and vote in UK elections if they're resident) so it'd be no surprise to find other examples.