Yes, although it is rare.
In the United States, the only state or federal legislature allowing remote voting of some type on floor votes in the sense of the original question is the Pennsylvania Senate and then it is allowed only when a member is absent on Pennsylvania Senate business.
Some chambers enforce agreements that between members of opposite parties that if, for example, a particular Democrat does not vote, a particular Republican will not vote, which is called "pair voting" which was allowed in 21 legislative chambers out of 99 at the state level all this, it is customary in the 2 chambers in Congress (whether or not it is binding) and may be done in various legislatures in territorial governments.
Committees of legislative bodies sometimes allow meetings to be conducted by teleconference with remote voting and it is ubiquitous in private business organizations and not uncommon in private non-profit organizations. Alaska recognizes a right for people who aren't members of legislative committees to participate in legislative hearings remotely, but not necessarily for remote voting by members of the committee itself.
Apparently, the only national legislature to permit remote voting (which is permitted via a proxy in that case) in connection with "floor votes", of an entire legislative chamber, is New Zealand.
I know of no source that provides this information for the myriad subnational legislative bodies outside the United States, or for local governments in the United States (of which there are approximately 100,000, many of which can adopt their own procedures on an issue like this one), and it would be impractical to search for it. I wouldn't be surprised if there were a handful of additional exceptions at this level.