Is it necessary for a communist to be an atheist? Have there been exceptions to this rule where a communist country or leader was comfortable with religion?

Since all communist countries persecuted religions .. I am asking it.

  • 3
    It's not necessary, but Marxists, for example, are atheist and so are many communists.
    – Shahar
    Jan 21, 2014 at 15:39
  • 3
    @Shahar (and whoever upvoted that comment) - plenty of self-avowed Marxists are not atheist.
    – user4012
    Jan 25, 2014 at 14:57
  • 3
    Religious persecution is hardly unique to communist countries. It's practically universal.
    – J Doe
    Feb 17, 2017 at 19:10

7 Answers 7


It depends on your definition of communism - AND religion.

  • Marx, as another answerer noted, officially denounced religion. This was for three distinct reasons:

    1. Organized religion (church) for hundreds of years was either a political power, or co-opted by another power (monarchs) to help pacify the oppressed lower classes.

      The official version of what was taught in USSR history classes (not sure how accurate it was historically) was that Christianity was adopted by Rome and later states since that religion taught the lower classes to be passive and accept their poor lot in life by promising heaven later on.

    2. Much of Marxism prides itself on based on rationality and science and materialism (debatably - see next point) . That directly contradicts spiritual angles.

    3. Some people (e.g. Eric S. Raymond - who moonlights as libertarian theoretician when not creating/documenting Open Source movement) argue that communism (at least of Marxist variety) acts as a theological memetic construct itself; and thus any religion is a direct competition to it.

  • There are things that can legitimately be called communism/communist yet are religion based:

    • There's a concept of "Religious Communism". Sometimes called " communalism", but in many main tenets it's goals and points are very communist. (Acts 2:44 is often seen as the first example of this.)

    • Liberation Theology (aka Christianized Marxism)

    • Tons of Islamic and Islamist movements are very Marxist in nature (Libya under Qaddafi being a good example of the former).

    • Many "new agey" type people subscribe to communist-type political notions (up to and including joining communes) and profess some spiritual or religious affinity as well (Wicca, Eastern type religiouns, assorted "New Age" spiritualism.

Some further reading:

  • 3
    This is a well balanced and factual answer. Jan 22, 2014 at 20:34
  • At last I can add comments - hurray! Now, as I have mentioned in my answer, the only guide of a revolutionary is to be (according to Marxism and Marxism-Leninism - I will use these two interchangably for the purpose of this comment and thread) atheist communism regardless of their religious beliefs. That means a synthesis between religion and communism is impossible, fraudulent and unhealthy. Jan 23, 2014 at 15:23
  • Similarly, according to Marxism (the communist ideology or, as some would call it, the science of proletarian revolutionaries) socialism is the transitionary period between capitalism and communism. Further, Karl Marx described socialism as the dictatorship of the proletariat. Moving on. Granted that the author of question here is refering to communism (and Marxism) we must evaluate the question based on these simple facts and basic teachings, and answer accordingly. Jan 23, 2014 at 15:24
  • 1
    According to Karl Marx's definition, without dictatorship of the proletariat, there is no socialism. This means there was socialism in fewer countries than you would believe they have. That is, there was no socialism in Libya, Gaddafi was a fraud, and there was no socialism in (for example) Cambodia and Korea either. Dictatorship of the proletariat was established by the proletarian movement centered around Lenin in Soviet Russia, Enver Hoxha in People's Albania, Mao Zedong in People's Republic of China and the eastern bloc countries in the Stalin-era. Jan 23, 2014 at 15:24
  • 1
    And further, by this definition of socialism, we must understand that Saddam, Assad, Gaddafi, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Tito, Ceauşescu, Gorbachev, Kim il-Sung and Pol Pot are not communists, socialists nor Marxists. They did not build socialism, but their own dictatorships with socialistic redistribution of economy. There is a huge difference. Jan 23, 2014 at 15:25

Marx declared that theism and religion in general keep the proletariat blind and controllable. With his words: "Religion is the opium of the people"

Some of communist countries have tolerated religion to a certain level, they never encouraged anybody to believe.


Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo.

In an instance, an anticapitalist with heavy Islamist leanings quoted this from Karl Marx as the best definition of religion there is. "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature." But he should (of course) not be considered a communist but a mere anticapitalist, as his ideology forms around the relationship between Islam and property - he is, practically, an Islamist who is against property and capitalism.

Although Karl Marx personally viewed religion as a natural result of the current way of society and the state and his materialist examination of religion lead him to his conclusion, that with the triumph of communism will religion wither away (along with the state) it is not necessary for the communists to be atheists.

Everything Karl Marx said is not to be worshiped as words that descended from heavens due to some divine being's mercy - such would be the most anti-Marxist thing to believe. Instead, Karl Marx, as a man, observed his material environment for his deductions and someone else, who is likewise observing their environment, trying to deduce materialist theories from it, may find themselves on the side of both religion and communism. And there would be nothing stopping them from advocating Marxism and Marxist economics - Marxism is not a cult that has strict rules and boundaries. And religion definitely does not contradict with Marxism.

What contradicts with Marxism, however, is the patriarchal and bureaucratic structure that is behind religion. Lenin described secularism as the ultimate status of the seperation of the religion and the state, i.e state-atheism, complete withdrawal of the state from religious affairs. While it is true that he also said atheism is inseperable from Marxism, the whole deal is behind understanding this complex phrase: Regardless of one's own religion, they must act as if they were atheist; just as they are free from the constraints of their nationality and race as they are Marxists, so shall they be free from the constraints of religion and act not by the guidance of religion but by that of a communist ideology. This means, on the grounds where religion and Marxism contradict each other, reconciliation is impossible: The church bureaucracy needs to be abolished.

As for the actually existing religious communists; I believe you may find them especially among the Palestinian and Jewish comrades.


It depends on what version of communism you are talking about. According to Karl Marx, "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people". It prevents people from seeing the class structure and oppression around them.

Those who toil and live in want all their lives are taught by religion to be submissive and patient while here on earth, and to take comfort in the hope of a heavenly reward. But those who live by the labour of others are taught by religion to practise charity while on earth, thus offering them a very cheap way of justifying their entire existence as exploiters and selling them at a moderate price tickets to well-being in heaven. Religion is opium for the people. Religion is a sort of spiritual booze, in which the slaves of capital drown their human image, their demand for a life more or less worthy of man. -Novaya Zhizn by Vladimir Lenin

If you are a Marxism communism or Marxist lower-stage communist/socialist, religion has no place in this system, other than to drive people back to capitalist oppression. This is why Marxist-Leninist atheism was the belief system of lower-stage communist dictatorships of the proletariat like the USSR.

“Marxist–Leninist atheism, with all its content is directed to the development of the abilities of the individual [person], religion deprives a person of his [and her] own “I”, doubles consciousness, creates conditions for him. . . . ” -Institute of Scientific Atheism of the Academy of Social Sciences (1981).

However, after Marx, people have named various forms of communism that incorporate religious principles. There is Christian communism, where the first Christians lived in some proto-communist societies that many people wish to return to.

Acts 2:44-45, "All who believed were together and had all things in common; 45 they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need."

Acts 4:32-35, "Now the whole group of those who believed were of one heart and soul, and no one claimed private ownership of any possessions, but everything they owned was held in common. ... 34 There was not a needy person among them, for as many as owned lands or houses sold them and brought the proceeds of what was sold. 35 They laid it at the apostles' feet, and it was distributed to each as any had need.

Christianity was the expression of class conflict in Antiquity. -Kautsky, Karl (1953) A form of Christian primitive socialism was described by socialist thinker Leo Tolstoy in his book The Kingdom of God Is Within You.

There is Islamic socialism, which is similar to the lower stage of communist production described by Marx that incorporates Islamic principles. It is incorporated in Gaddafism by Muammar Gaddafi and the ideology of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party.

There is Jewish socialism in the ideology Labor Zionism or socialist Zionism: a socialist version of the left-wing division of the Zionist movement (a movement espousing the creation of a Jewish homeland).

Basically, communism is generally agreed to be against religion according to Karl Marx who was one of the first to give communism an official definition, but there are versions of communism that have been created that can exist along with religion and fit with the basic definition of communism: a theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs.


Poland was in the Soviet block and had lots of members of the Communist Party. At the same time most people in Poland are practicing Catholics ( more than 90%). So by the pigeon hole principle, there should have been many religious communists in Poland during the Soviet time.


I would doubt it, communism is mainly about economics and religion, is well about religion.

What's probably more important is that materialism as an on-going philosophical point of view, in the modern era, is associated with Europe; there are other materialist philosophies (for example the Indian tradition categorifies them as astika, but they don't have the purchase on the imagination as contemporary atheism does in all it's various modalities.

A good counter-question, to help understand the meaning of a question such as how communism intersects with athiesm, is to also ask (given that communism is often set against capitalism), how does capitalism intersects with athiesm; it's a question, I suppose of intersectionality.


Marx had some pretty healthy insights on the working class. His oposition to capitalism was of wise insight.

He was of course against religion as religion is of course of man and not of GOD therefore quite dysfunctional in many ways and of course to this day separates rather than unites!

I believe that if we take away religion the people are left with spirituality and spiritual growth. I don't believe JESUS said anything about the positives of religion in fact was nor for the church nor Moses within the 10 Commandments! If I'm wrong then please correct me and show me where to go for references? Not saying Marx's theories may not needed some ironing out as most all things do! I've not ever read anything on Marx and just took for granted that he was evil and of the devil. Of course this was based on the educational system of a capitalist government and society I've been brought up in. Of course any capitalist would be highly offended by anything Marx theorized and totally close off to anything that he had to say without themselves looking into it as "Marx is a devil".

Check this out on YouTube. Its only about 9 1/2min.yet very interesting and informative. Karl Marx political views. Just type that in on www.youtube.com and watch before responding to my comment please!

  • 4
    You are reducing Communism to Marxism. While Marx is often considered the father of communism, it is quite oversimplifying to reduce the topic just onto his personal views. There are many other political theoreticians which contributed to the theory of communism by proposing alternative models and refinements which can not simply be marginalized.
    – Philipp
    Jan 27, 2016 at 18:11

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