Source: Richard A. Posner, How Judges Think (2008).
p 332 Bottom:
Breyer is one of the nationalists, despite his acknowledgment that a nation as populous as the United States needs a federal system in order to give the citizenry a sense of full participation in political life because
p 333 Top:
issues at the state and local levels are often both more important and more intelligible to people than issues involving the national govern-ment. Disagreeing with a majority of his colleagues,25 he argues that the federal government should be allowed to compel state officials to assist in enforcing federal law, as by requiring local sheriffs to check on com- pliance with federal gun control laws. He thinks that unless the federal government can force state officials to assist in administering federal programs, it will need a larger bureaucracy and so will expand at the ex- pense of state and local government. [2.] A more likely consequence of fed-eral commandeering of state officials would be more federal programs because some of [1.] their costs would have been shifted from the federal treasury to the states. State officials would be drafted as de facto federal employees That is the antithesis of federalism.
What's the referent of 'their' in 1?
I don't understand the bold. If the federal government commandeers state officials, then it'd expend more money, and so have less money for (more) federal programs?