Yes, rationing and maximum prices, also called a price ceiling (minimum or price floors are another common element) always causes more scarcity. They may not always cause a black market, but it happens frequently. I would say that these are a common feature of all modern industrialized nations. But some nations use them more frequently and are more restrictive.
Price controls are derived from socialism, which is an economic philosophy that does not use price to control supply and demand for goods in the economy. The government attempts to centrally control supply and demand through coordinated rationing systems. It therefore makes sense that nations, such as Cuba and Venezuela, that have a socialist economy rely more heavily on price controls.
There is likely huge disagreement everywhere about if and how price controls work in each country where they are implemented, so I will just give one example. In the US, we spend a great deal of money on agricultural subsidies for the purposes of maintaining steady agricultural markets for farmers and food prices for the poor and middle class. It has warped the domestic and international agricultural markets in many negative ways, benefiting large agricorporations like Monsanto. While Americans are far from going hungry, we are actually using less and less of our farm land and people refuse to become farmers under this system, so I would argue the US is likely producing less food and especially the food people want to eat than we would otherwise. In support of maintaining this system is that also agriculture is the US's largest export, so no one wants to stop subsidizing it. Venezuela has a similar problem with oil, but worse, since they have actually nationalized their oil industry.
Unfortunately, I feel that the leaders of Cuba have had adequate time to digest modern economic theories already. It appears to be an ideological problem.