In a society based around private property rights, original appropriation, with no state, are there any proposed methods for dealing with disputes that involve flows of air and water? (So "Muh EPA!" is not a valid response in this context.)
I've read many interesting proposals for how various disputes could be handled peacefully by neutral, third-party arbitration agencies, including some environmental disputes. For example, if your factory oozes waste onto my land, you have violated my property rights and now owe me compensation. One additional point to mention is that if a frivolous suit is brought before an arbiter, the person raising the issue now owes compensation to the defendant for the time spent/wasted in dealing with the frivolous dispute.
However, I've yet to see any methods proposed for how some of the following "flowing resource" scenarios could be adjudicated:
Several towns live along a river, separated by miles. The northernmost town dams the river entirely. The lower towns have no water.
In a frigid climate, one neighbor who is downwind of another is often breathing in smoke coming from the fire of another neighbor's house.
A new neighbor arrives in some unappropriated land, begins to appropriate it and in doing so, makes so much noise that surrounding neighbors cannot sleep.
It seems like many of these rules are easy to set up in advance via some kind of homeowner's association, but in larger rural areas where this is no such organization, how could these disputes be handled without degenerating into violence or property loss (the "if you don't like it, leave" response)?