Are there studies examining various characteristics of USA cities based on the amount of time they have been governed by Democrats or Republicans? Say, things like growth rates of population and economy, cost of living, quality of living, crime rates, homeless rate, etc. Have any such studies attempted to account for background features like industrial base, natural resources, natural tourist features, presence of a large military base, etc.?
The party membership of executives is a common variable in political science. However, usually this is directed at either the national or sub-national unit level (in the U.S. sub-national units are states). For example, there is a plethora of scholarship which examines how Democrat or Republican presidencies have shaped the United States.
A quick search through some academic databases turned up an article you may be interested in. The American Journal of Political Science published an article which found that cities with Democratic mayors spent more on public safety than cities with Republican mayors. The same pattern was not found for tax policy or social policy.
The authors' explanation is that cities have control over their public safety policies, but must share authority with state/federal partners regarding social and tax policy. Therefore, they conclude that the party membership of the mayor only matters in policy areas where the city is in control.
Source: Gerber, Elisabeth R., and Daniel J. Hopkins. "When mayors matter: estimating the impact of mayoral partisanship on city policy." American Journal of Political Science 55, no. 2 (2011): 326-339
- Democrat: 33 (66%)
- Republican: 14 (28%)
- Independent: 3 (6%)
- Largest city by population Democrat: New York, New York
- Largest city by population Republican: San Diego, California
Census Bureau Reveals Fastest-Growing Large Cities (San Diego, California (Republican) listed as 11th; Dallas, Texas (Democrat) listed as 3rd)
Fastest Growing Large Metro Economies Of 2016 Are Grand Rapids, Orlando, Nashville; Slowest Are Oklahoma, Houston, New Orleans (Nashville, Tennessee (Democrat) +1.84 pts. growth rate; all of top 10 mayors are Democrat)
10 Cities Americans Are Moving To (And Where They Are Moving From) (Austin, Texas (Democrat) 7.8% increase between 2015 and 2017; Jacksonville, Floria (Republican) 5.0% increase between 2015 and 2017)
- List of United States cities by crime rate (St. Louis, Missouri (Democrat), 1st total violent and property; top 10 are Democrat; Miami, Florida (Republican), 20th total violent and property)
- Poverty: 10 Cities With the Most Homeless People (1st New York, New York (Democrat); 4th San Diego, California (Republican))
- The U.S.'s Largest Manufacturing Cities (Los Angeles, California (Democrat) "According to a Make it in L.A. study, Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing city in the country, with more than 500,000 employees in the sector."; Spring Hill, Tennessee (Republican) "Tennessee employed about 313,500 in 2012, and that number is expected to rise slightly to 318,800 by 2022 the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development.")
- 12 major American cities that are shrinking (Hoover, Alabama (Republican) "The Birmingham-Hoover metropolitan region is one of just two Southern cities that saw population loss last year, declining 0.2 percent to 1.15 million residents."; St. Louis, Missouri (Democrat) "St. Louis saw its metropolitan population decline by 1.1 percent to 2.8 million residents, making it the city that suffered the steepest dip last year.")
- North America: Resources; U.S. Natural Resource Sectors
San Diego, California (Republican, 2018)
The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing.In 2014, San Diego was designated by a Forbes columnist as the best city in the country to launch a small business or startup company.
New York, New York (Democrat, 2018)
New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in the first half of 2014. In February 2017, New York City's unemployment rate fell to 4.3%, the lowest in the city's recorded history, with the city achieving the status of what many economists refer to as full employment.