You are asking a fairly broad question, so I need to tackle a few points before answer it directly.
Why are some nations more wealthy than others?
The economic term is called total factor productivity - it measures how much stuff a country can produce given a certain amount of inputs (land, capital, labour, etc). Improving this number is the only way to have economic growth in the long term. Over the last 200-300 years the main driver behind changing this number was technological progress - we learned to produce things better with fewer people involved, less materials used, etc.
Unemployment due to technological change
A technological change, as you noted, has potential to create unemployment. However, the unemployment created is transitional not systemic. The reason is that our wants are unlimited, so when you can have one product or service for cheaper due to a technological change, you will just end up having extra money to spend it elsewhere. For example, if cars become cheaper (which they have, in real terms over the last few decades) you will spend the money on other goods. So the people who were displaced from car manufacturing plants can transition into jobs producing those other goods. The total wealth of the society will increase in the process, as we will have more stuff given the same amount of inputs (alternatively we will have the same amount of stuff but we could produce it by working less, involving less capital, etc).
Now the problem is that sometimes it's not very easy to transition jobs. There are towns built around car manufacturing plants, and when they cut workers, people may not have an easy recourse. People may also be invested into a certain skill set which becomes unneeded. To solve this problem, governments have typically sponsored re-education programs, or tried to incentivise businesses to open similar plants in the areas that have been impacted by this kind of unemployment (eg. open a hair dryer plant close to where a car manufacturing plant used to be).
Keep in mind, the unemployment created by this technological change is one-time. The next generation of people will have a different skill set and will not be impacted by this. The only concern is to mitigate the negative impact on the people who are immediately displaced by this change. But, society as a whole gets wealthier. All other consumers get products for less, thus implicitly have greater purchasing power. This is not a systemic problem, and therefore there is no ideology around it.