The USA and Canada do fund refugee camps abroad1. Resettlement is for cases when the camps are not the solution
The UNHCR resettlement program aims at protecting the most vulnerable refugees by moving them to safe countries.
From the link:
RESETTLEMENT: The careful selection by governments -for purposes of lawful and secure admission- of the most vulnerable refugees who can neither return to their home country nor live in safety in their current host country.
Getting to a refugee camp is not always a safe solution, as a refugee camp is just a temporal solution and some cathegories of refugees may need further help:
specially vulnerable people (e.g. children without relatives) may be at risk.
people with health conditions may not be able to stand living in campaign tents for long.
some people may be targetted by the host country or even from the same camp.
So people who are evaluated to be in those cathegories2 are refered to the resettlement program. Once in the resettlement program, their data is passed to possible host countries who decide if they allow for their resettlement.
Apart from that, there could be sometimes some specific resettlements due to political reasons. For example, during the Vietnam War the Hmong people helped the USA, and after the end of the war the USA accepted the resettlement of considerable quantities of Hmong people (I do not know if through the UNHCR program or independently from it)3.
Mostly through the UNHCR, jointly with other countries.
2There are other restrictions, like
Persons found to have committed serious crimes or who might pose a threat to other would not be refered for resettlement to another country, and I guess the evaluation is way more complicated than what the linked data tells.
3Here there is not only the humanitarian side but (probably) the political side of showing support for your former ally so your other allies trust you more.