It's difficult to find a population density measure with the criteria you've requested because the very definition of land usable for urban development is hard to define. Today we do have massive urban development in areas considered prohibitive less than 100 years ago. Also the floor-area ratio is quite different depending on culture.
Nevertheless you do have a physiological density, also known as real population density (as opposed to arithmetic density) , whose definition is the following:
The physiological density or real population density is the number of
people per unit area of arable land.
A higher physiological density suggests that the available
agricultural land is being used by more and may reach its output limit
sooner than a country that has a lower physiological density. Egypt is
a notable example, with physiological density reaching that of
Bangladesh, despite much desert.
This is a map of the physiological density in the world:
Wikipedia has a list for physiological density. The World Bank keeps the data of arable land per person.