In democratic electoral politics, individual vote choices are central to explaining electoral outcomes. There are at least two ideas that have percolated from scholarship into the popular consciousness to explain voter choice:
- People vote based upon their personal preferences (rational choice)
- People vote because of their social group
Rational choice voting has its roots in economics, whereas Converse may be the father of social voting. It is conceivable, although I do not know of any, that there are other explanations in the literature.
This question could be thought of as taking two forms:
- As of 2018, who are the scholars currently (or recently) researching voter behavior?
- What is the state of research on voter behavior?
The use of "main" is not to introduce an evaluation of importance into the answer, only to limit research to that which most scholars in the field would be aware of, whether or not it is recognized as true.