First of all, ignore political posts on social media.
Those messages which spread the widest on social media are those which have the most emotional impact. Not those which are the most objectively relevant. So if you get most of your political news from social media, then you will mostly read about irrelevant anecdotes and niche issues which make some people angry. You won't read much about the "boring" big picture topics which affect everyone in the long run but are not as emotionally charged.
Also, few people bother to fact-check things they share on social media. The result is that many social media users (intentionally or unintentionally) spread misinformation.
If you want to know which party actually stands for what, then there are two important things.
- what they say
- what they do
When it comes to what they say, do not rely on second hand reporting. Look what they themselves are saying. When you see some news "Politician X said outrageous thing Y", find out what the context of that quote was and what they actually meant with it. For example, when you see outrage on social media because a politician apparently said "All Pastafari must die!", your research might reveal that what they actually said was "All Pastafari must die one day, and so do people of other religions, because we are all mortal beings with a limited time on this world, which is why we need an inheritance tax reform".
When it's election season, parties will publish their election manifests on their websites. Before you cast your vote, you should read the manifests of all relevant parties. There will always be some parts you disagree with. What matters most is which party you agree with the most on the core issues you consider the most important.
But politicians also tend to promise one thing and then do another. So a far more important thing to check is what they actually do.
- Look up some bills which were recently passed in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
- Find out what they actually mean (the hardest part)
- Check who proposed them and which party they are from
- Check which parties voted for them and which voted against them
Understanding a bill is often the hardest part, but also the most educational. It is often not obvious at first glance which segments of the population are affected by it and what exactly the short term and long term effects will be. In order to understand this, you need to educate yourself about the socioeconomic backgrounds and how the bill interacts with other laws. This can seem quite dull and boring if compared to the funny pictures on Facebook and the lurid slogans on Twitter. But it will help you to go beneath the shouting of the populists and understand what is actually going on in your country.