tl;dr: Other than the power to declare war, are any of the powers afforded the U.S. president limited as to how long the action is effective?
When I was in school (late 90's, US mid-Atlantic region), we were taught that the government had a separation of powers, and the President had unilateral permission do perform certain actions, such as declare war, but these actions were checked by a 30- or 60-day time limit, after which a supporting action had to be ratified by (eg) Congress in order for this action to remain in effect.
So, for example, the president could declare war, and it would be "good" for 30 days, but if Congress didn't agree and ratify an equivalent declaration of war, it would be moot. So, for example, if a President declared war on Canada, and within 30 days Congress didn't say "yes, we are at war with Canada", then it the declaration of war would just ... expire. My teachers weren't too clear on exactly how this worked; so pretty much my understanding was we'd all just be like "hey we're not at war any more, how about that maple syrup?"
Anyway, I've come to since realize that the right of the U.S. president to declare war unilaterally without the permissions/acceptance of Congress, with its 30-day validity, is a particular presidential power called the "war power". A president can do a lot of things other than just declare war, however. Do any of those other powers -- such as presidential proclamations and memoranda -- have time limitations present, or are they perpetually in effect until otherwise affected by or retracted by a Congressional act or another Presidential act?
I've searched for presidential proclamations and memoranda and have not been able to identify if any of them will expire naturally. There is some indication that President Bush declared a state of emergency after 9/11 which remains in effect, which would indicate that (at minimum) such proclamations do not expire when the individual leaves office.