In countries like the US, Germany and Australia that have a federal system of government, is offshore natural resources such as Oil and Gas owned by the states or the federal government?
In Australia, states control operations up to 3 miles from the coast, and the federal government beyond that. Source: Geoscience Australia website: http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/energy/legislation/offshore-legislation
In the US it is similar, according to Wikipedia, with states controlling up to 3 miles from the coast and federal government beyond (this is a result of the 1953 Submerged Land Act): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Offshore_oil_and_gas_in_the_United_States
This is only a partial answer but I'm sure you could find information on other countries with a bit of Googling.