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Paragraph One of Article 2, Section 2 of the United States constitution contains the following text:

"The President … shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment."

In all the political punditry I have seen online and on television, this has been interpreted to mean that the President can only pardon Federal crimes. Based on the original text, why would the President not have the power to pardon ANY crime against ANY STATE? The text reads "against the United States". Are the various States not part of the United States? Should the Presidential pardon power not then extend to any crimes committed against any State Law (since said State is part of the United States)?

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