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This is an excerpt from an article explaining why Amazon is reconsidering opening its headquarters in New York:

New York is a pro-labor city, whereas Virginia is a right-to-work state where employees cannot be obliged to join a union as a condition of employment.

In New York, what type of employees are "obliged to join a union as a condition of employment"?

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Most notably in construction and entertainment.

In construction, many companies have closed shop or union shop contracts whereby you either have to join a union, or pay the equivalent sum of money. https://therealdeal.com/issues_articles/the-state-of-the-construction-union/

In entertainment, you must be a member of the actors guild to perform in a union theatre, and Guild members cannot perform in non-union performances.

  • NYC is also known for extremely an extremely strong stagehand union - don't know what it's really called - is that also closed shop? (I guess it's considered 'entertainment' also?) – davidbak Feb 9 at 0:10
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    And while public sector workers are not technically obliged to “join”, they do have to pay dues. – Brian Z Feb 9 at 0:16

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