As the book instantiates Germany (cf green line beneath), I seek other federalist nation-states as examples.

European Union Governance and Policy Making: A Canadian Perspective (2018). p 61.

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EU: The EU now has a bicameral system, with both the Council and EP having legislative powers (ordinary legislative procedure).
They also have equal powers in the budgetary processes. (A better comparison than Canada would be the German system, with the directly elected Bundestag and the Bundesrat, where the 16 Land governments are represented, with the bigger _Länder having more seats than the smaller ones.)

Canada: Canada does have a bicameral system (inspired by Britian), but the elected House of Commons has more powers than the appointed Senate.
Bills will be considered and passed by the Senate, but only after passage by the House of Commons.
The Canadian provinces do not have a legislative chamber at the federal level (which is rather exceptional for a federal system).

2 Answers 2


Until 1913, the United States Senate had something like this. It was the state legislature which elected senators, however.


The United States' Congress is Bicermeral with the House of Representatives representing people from a district internal to a state. A states total delegation is determined by the state's total population following the census. The seats are presently fixed to 437 seats. The Senate represents one state collectively and each state's delegation is Two Senators regardless of population size of the state.

Either house may introduce a bill to become law but only the house may introduce bills that will affect the budget. The House is considered to be representing the will of the people while the Senate is representing the will of the States (presently they are elected by the same people who elect state level governments, but originally they were elected by state level legislatures).

Both houses have things that only that house can do (The big Senate only thing is "Advise and Conscent on officers appointed by the President, which are usually the Cabinet, Ambassadors, Judges, and Agency heads and deputies).

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