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This question is a follow-up from a previous question Self-deportation of American Citizens from US, and the purpose of my question is not to discuss the particulars of the Galicia event, but to ask the broader question about the actual process of transporting a person from the US to Mexico (or for that matter any other country).

It occurs to me that there are two major categories of deportation: (1) Where the CBP/ICE are in custody of a person and with force put that person on a plane,train, bus. etc that will only discharge that passenger in a targeted country and (2) where the person agrees to self-deport, in which case, they are not in custody and promise to arrange their own transportation out of the country (where they go and how they get there is their choice).

Focused on the first category, where CBP/ICE has custody of the person, does (for example Ice Airways) just fly into Mexico or Guatemala City and dump people off on the tarmac without notice? Or does the receiving country have to agree to accept 'the human cargo'? Can the receiving country refuse admission (particularly where the receiving country is unconvinced that the person being deported is actually a citizen of the receiving country)?

So the question I am asking is: What are the mechanics of deportation both in the US as well as in the "receiving" country?

(I am NOT asking about the process before a final deportation order is issued) or even person elects to "self-deport", rather I'm asking about what happens after)

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    I can't answer in detail, but I have heard of cases in which a receiving country cannot be found, so that addresses the next to last paragraph in broad terms. Of course this is so: how do you think the US would react if some other country showed up unannounced with a planeful of people who claimed to be US nationals? Countries generally recognize an obligation to take their nationals, but there may be disputes about nationality as you note. – phoog Jul 31 '19 at 20:38
  • @phoog - re: How do you think the US would react... One would suppose that if the people claiming to be US nationals had documents to support their claim, the US would have to admit them (albeit perhaps provisionally). OTOH, if they do not have some claim to proper US presence, one would anticipate that Immigration control would not admit them to the interior. So... that supposes that a person being deported from the US MUST have appropriate papers to be acceptable to the receiving country. That's what seems to make sense, but is that what actually happens? (why I'm asking the Q) – BobE Jul 31 '19 at 20:54
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    In practice, I am quite certain they work it out through diplomatic channels for each individual before the flight is even scheduled. I am just not privy to the details, which is why I am not answering. It's also interesting to wonder how the process varies according to a country's relationship with the US. – phoog Jul 31 '19 at 21:03
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    I'm not familiar with the US system, but the UK certainly does get travel documents from embassies for the nationals they deport, although it seems a bit under the table theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/may/21/… – pjc50 Jul 31 '19 at 21:09
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    A country can refuse to accept deportation of its own nationals back to the country, and that's the reason for INA 243(d) (8 USC 1253(d)), which allows the US government to discontinue issuance of visas to nationals of such a country in retaliation. – user102008 Aug 1 '19 at 18:27

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