The Japanese have often been criticized for the lack of government funding of basic science, compared to the private sector. This neglect of academic science has been noted since 1970. The budget of public universities, where most government-funded research occurs, has failed to keep up with inflation since that time.
Japanese academics have always been dissatisfied with the poor state of university budgets, especially when compared to the U.S. On the other hand, the American scientific community tends to recognize more of the strong points of Japanese academic science than the Japanese community itself does. Who, then, criticizes the Japanese basic science effort? It seems that overseas critics are primarily concerned with trade and technology-related conflicts between the U.S. and Japan. They claim that American intellectual property has been virtually given away or stolen by Japanese manufacturers.
I remembered that the U.S. put pressure on the Japanese for not spending enough on basic sciences, and it made me wonder if a country like the U.S. can block access by a foreign nation to its universities. Is this legal under international laws?
The Japanese neglect of basic science has mainly been criticized outside of Japan by American science policy makers, who are concerned about the loss of intellectual property rights. In contrast, Japanese practitioners of academic science have bemoaned the poor financial state of universities. Both of these charges reflect how in postwar Japan, academic science has been overshadowed by private science, as practiced in corporate laboratories in particular.
Is blocking access legal, I tried to find a law that would allow this, but I couldn't find anything, except to find out it was a gentleman's agreement to share scientific knowledge.