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If we consider Brexit to take place on 31 October 2019 as planned, does that mean this day would be the last day for the United Kingdom being still part of the EU, or does it mean from that day the UK would no longer be part of the EU? Or in other words, would the final leave take place just at 1st November instead?

Moreover, if there would not be any deal between the EU and the UK, would it mean that

  • the UK will be finally out of the EU and there would be no "undo option" (except a theoretical application to become candidate country again)
  • European foreigners in the UK without valid permission would be "illegally" in the UK
  • border controls would be applied everywhere, also at the Channel Tunnel etc.?
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    Note that there are already border controls at the channel tunnel. The main concern there is the scope of the checks and the backlogs that could result from even a slight increase in the time needed to carry them out. – Relaxed Sep 11 at 9:10
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If we consider Brexit to take place on 31 October 2019 as planned, does that mean this day would be the last day for Great Britain being still part of the EU, or does it mean from that day Great Britain would no more be part of the EU?

The former. The UK is set to leave the EU on Oct 31st at the turn of midnight CET (which as noted in the comments is technically Nov 1st CET; h/t Steve and phuzy).

Or in other words, would the final leave take place just at 1st November instead?

Assuming the UK exits then, the UK will leave the EU on Oct 31st at 23:00 UK time.

Moreover, if there would not be any deal between the EU and Great Britain, would it mean that

  • Great Britain will be finally out of the EU and there would be no "undo option" (except a theoretical application to become candidate country again)

Yes.

  • European foreigners in GB without valid permission would be "illegally" in GB

Yes, if you mean EU residents, with two caveats. The first is that EU citizens will still be free to come and go for short stays. The other is that they're able to regularize their situation (by obtaining a settled status) within a certain deadline.

  • border controls would be applied everywhere, also at the Channel Tunnel etc.?

No one is certain about how that would look like -- especially on the Irish border -- but in theory yes. Expect long lines of trucks at Calais and/or Dover. People, as noted further up, will be able to continue to flow in and out as they do today without much hassle. (Possible caveat: there might be issues at the Irish border. The UK and Ireland aren't in the Schengen area and enjoy a free movement agreement, but I'm not entirely sure what the nature of it is.)

This also means severe economic repercussions, in terms of cross-border transit of industrial parts and associated taxes, because rules of origins will rear their ugly head. But that's another story and question altogether.

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    I'm not familiar with the "settled status" business, but the page you link to says "The deadline for applying will be 30 June 2021, or 31 December 2020 if the UK leaves the EU without a deal." So that's not October 31 2019, which makes the answer to that sub-question "no"... – Fizz Sep 10 at 7:34
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    Furthermore, it seems EU (in fact EEA) citizens will be able to stay in the UK for up 3 months without explicit authorization, which for the non-settlers is going to be called "European temporary leave to remain (Euro TLR)"; again it seems it will only be required for stays greater than 3 months. This a good reason why shouldn't answer omnibus questions with one-line semi-[in]correct answers (for each). – Fizz Sep 10 at 7:48
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    It's midnight CET, i.e. 11pm GMT (see, for example, here). – Steve Melnikoff Sep 10 at 8:32
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    Necessary to point out that border controls are happening at the Channel Tunnel for every passenger on every train because the UK is not part of the Schengen regime. The difference will be that in a no deal scenario customs inspections (of goods, hence lorry lines) must be conducted. – Jan Sep 10 at 9:13
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    "The UK is set to leave the EU on Oct 31st at midnight CET" it's actually 1st November at Midnight CET or Oct 31st 23:00 GMT – phuzi Sep 10 at 15:37
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The UK is scheduled to leave the EU at 11 PM on the 31st of October. It's 11 PM because that is midnight in Central European Time which is what the EU mostly uses for administrative purposes.

That means that from that time onward, the UK will not be a member of the European Union. After that time it is a "3rd country", just like any other which has no association with the EU.

However, both the UK and EU have agreed to extend some special arrangements beyond that date. The EU has stated that it will facilitate travel for UK citizens on a special basis (not requiring a visa). The UK will also try to guarantee EU citizen's rights regarding their right to live in the UK, and has created the Settlement Scheme to that end. The current advice is that the scheme will run until December 2020 and that EU citizens have until then to apply, although if they want to travel in and out of the UK during that time it could be problematic for them, and the scheme is experiencing some severe issues.

More over it appears that freedom of movement will not end in October, as there is no legal means to do so. What this means in practice is currently somewhat unclear.

Border controls are also unclear. The UK's current position is that it will not have border controls with Ireland and will so some unspecified thing to keep traffic flowing though UK ports. However, controls would need to be placed on the EU side and the ports can only move vehicles and goods when ships have offloaded them on the EU side and returned, so that may be optimistic.

Re-joining the EU is possible but the terms are unclear. The UK could make a normal application to join, but it seems likely that there would be some kind of fast-track option available as economic, legal and social alignment is already in place and could be restored quickly. Personally I think the option of re-joining would only be offered if some change was made to prevent a repeat of the current debacle, such as deleting Article 50 or heavily reforming it.

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    +1. Two other important changes that would occur were the UK to decide to re-join are that a) the UK would lose all of its opt-outs (in particular: the Euro) with the possible exception of the Schengen area (where it would be forced to align with whatever Ireland is doing); and b) the UK would lose its budget rebate. – Denis de Bernardy Sep 10 at 11:56
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    Why everyone talks about deleting article 50? It is not going anywhere and as someone commented on another Q&A, if it were gone nobody would ever have the power to leave the EU again. There are all legal arguments for cutting freedom of movement as the very article you linked states. There are social and organizational arguements against (would cause too much trouble). – Mindwin Sep 10 at 17:03
  • @Mindwin is there an article for leaving the United States? In any case, it will likely be altered drastically to prevent this happening again. – user Sep 10 at 17:14
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    @Mindwin: The power to leave the EU will continue to exist. Removing article 50 just makes the procedure less well-defined. – Joshua Sep 10 at 17:59
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    @user - The question of whether there is an article for leaving the United States needed a civil war to be settled. The EU chose to make clear that there is that article and it's unlikely to remove it. Although the UK leaving the EU is causing a lot of troubles, that's nothing compared with the troubles caused by some states trying to leave the United States. – Pere Sep 10 at 18:23

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