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If the Prime Minister resigns, who becomes the Prime Minister and how are they selected?

Also can the UK not have a Prime Minister?

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If the Prime Minister resigns, who becomes the Prime Minister and how are they selected?

When a PM wishes to step down without having lost a general election, the expectation is that they announce their resignation, but don't immediately resign. Instead, they then trigger a leadership election in their party.

Once the party elects a new leader, only then does the PM resign. The outgoing PM goes to see the Queen to resign in person, and to recommend that the Queen appoint the new party leader as PM.

This is precisely what happened when Tony Blair was replaced by Gordon Brown (though Brown was unopposed, so there was no full leadership election), when David Cameron was replaced by Theresa May (ditto), and when May was replaced by Boris Johnson.

Also can the UK not have a Prime Minister?

Yes, but only briefly. If the PM were to resign unexpectedly, die, or otherwise become unable to carry out their duties, then it's expected that the Cabinet would immediately meet in order to appoint one of their number to be PM until a party leadership contest could be held.

The Labour Party Rule Book is explicit about this, and specifies that if the PM becomes "permanently unavailable", "the Cabinet shall, in consultation with the NEC, appoint one of its members to serve as Party leader [and hence PM] until a ballot under these rules can be carried out."

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