Apparently the EU has been increasingly conditioning funding of various programs in Africa on African countries stopping would-be immigrants to Europe far away from the actual EU borders. I've also read that the US administration has been doing some of this in Latin America.
Are there some comparative figures for the two (US vs EU), e.g. in the following categories:
direct programs sponsored (in poor/third countries) for stopping would-be immigrants, e.g. programs for combating human trafficking,
amount of aid conditioned on stopping would-be immigrants,
threats of tariffs or other sanctions (I think only the US has resorted to these, but I could be wrong).