Latin America has a long-time military government. Most of the countries (all of them?) has some military background, which grew being authority and, therefore, has their own judicial system. And yes, in Latin America there are several countries with two judicial system for the military but considering what country you want to analyze, the cases are different.
In order to understand the cases, worth mention that systems has different kind of crimes:
- Institutional faults: Against their colleagues or the military institution.
- Against the military discipline: When a military violate an institutional rule. Very similar to the other but with the small difference that we talking about different branches (Army against Navy). This type of fault is ambiguous and tend to generate confusions.
According to each country, they have some similarities and differences when it comes to discipline and crimes. According to studies of the Latin America Security and Defence Network, we have three cases about military systems:
Case 1: Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras
In these countries, there two types of code: the military justice law for crimes and/or penal procedures in one hand; a disciplinary book on the other hand.
Case 2: Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia
There are separate laws, specifying the conditions of military sanction (penal punishment) or military sanction (internal faults, institutional faults).
Case 3: Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay, Nicaragua, Venezuela
In addition mentioned before in case 1, there are also specific legal tools which regulates the military forum as a body. Paraguay for example the Paraguay's Military Law stipulates faults and sanctions in the military area and also a special section about the discipline and the sanctions if someone violates it.
The Chilean case is worth to mention the normative about which specific sector of the military you want to regulate, given that Army forces has a differentiated rule for the Army and the Air Force among others.