Jews [are] more loyal to Israel than to their own country
This is quite obviously a problematic statement; let me rephrase the statement a couple of times to make that a little more obvious:
All Catholics are loyal to the Pope and by extension to their Catholic church or even the Vatican; more so than to their home country
Chinese and Japanese immigrants will always be more loyal to their home country.
Black US citizens are more loyal to their African countries of origins than to the US
And it’s worth tacking on your supposed reasoning as a direct second point:
Jewish people have a cultural, spiritual, and ethnic connection to those like them, and Israel is comprised of almost entirely of all Jews.
This might also be said for all of the above and Italy, China/Japan, whichever-part-of-Africa.
All of these are trivially wrong when considered factual statements; that’s the problem. Every person is an individual. Everybody grew up and was educated in a different environment, everybody holds their own beliefs, ideas and preferences. Everybody has a different connection to their ancestors or co-believers.
Yet while this is quite routinely accepted for <insert majority group here>, people often tend to think of <insert minority group here> as fundamentally ‘different’ from themselves and apply to them all sorts of attributes as a group. Your sentence clearly implies that kind of connection between all Jews. Yet all three adjectives you place before connection do not hold. Jewish people are found in various ethnicities; there are Eritrean Jews, Russian Jews, Spanish Jews and American Jews none of which have a common ethnicity. There are different cultures within Judaism; at the very least one might have heard of Ashkenazi and Sephardim. Within the Jewish religion, there are liberal, traditional, orthodox and ultra-orthodox communities and many more between those more clearly defined labels.
I hope I don’t have to show how the alleged connection falls apart even more quickly when applied to the other example statements I phrased.
For Jews, the idea that all Jews had a deep connection between each other and thus somehow worked together for world domination peaks in the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy rubbish, in German thanks to the Nazis it is known most commonly as the Jewish-Bolshewist conspiracy (It is usually labelled conspiracy theory but adding theory there seems to give it too much validation).
Jews [have] too much power in business and finance
This is a more tricky one but it brings with it an entire rat’s tail of prejudice that was applied to Jews historically; this entire rat’s tail is essentially all but an extension of the paragraph above.
For the longest period of European recorded history (especially the Middle Ages), trade was organised in guilds or corporations. If you wanted to practice as a tradesman, you had to join that guild but most guilds were (quite obviously given the historical period) christian and would not accept Jews or other ‘unbelievers’. That in turn meant most professions were inaccessible to the Jewish population; one of the few that remained open was banking. Incidentally, the both the Bible’s testaments (old and new) forbid taking insterest on goods or money one lent. For Christians, this was seen as more absolute, i.e. the Pope would decree that essentially no Christian shall take interest. For Jews, talmudic interpretations of the thoraic law would result in interest only prohibited if taken from another Jew. Thus, Jews quickly became the only party one could turn to if one wanted credit.
From there on, it was a very small step to the ideas that ‘all Jews are good with money’, ‘all Jews are rich’, ‘all Jews take away the Christians’ hard-earned money’ and all those other tropes. The original quote is only the modern-day interpretation of that trope. And once again, this considers all Jews to be more or less the same, all Jews having power over finance etc; trivially wrong, see above.
Incidentally, these questions aren’t necessarily tied to Israel. As you mention, Israel as a state wasn’t founded until 1947. One point to note is that there had been significant Jewish immigration to the area that would later become Israel from all across Europe as part of the zionism movement since the early 20th century. But in essence, the trope that ‘Jews are more loyal to Israel’ itself is only an extension of ‘Jews are more loyal to themselves’ which is conveniently independent of whether or where significant Jewish settlements exist. Again, a statement that typically falls apart quickly when the facts are observed: There is no inherent reason for anybody to trust any stranger of the same nationality/religion/origin more than any close friend of a different nationality/race/origin.
How these beliefs – which can be reduced essentially to ‘Jews are different from us’ – lead to the type of neo-Nazi skinhead you describe again isn’t hard to show. They are different, they don’t trust us, they have power; thus, they must either be the source of all our problems or we must remove them before they become one. The bit where they are different can be applied to pretty much any minority immediately – and history is full of examples starting way prior to the Armenian genocide to modern European anti-immigration sentiments. The bit about power and finances can be adjusted to <insert minority here> as needed to fit the perceived stereotypes as required.
there are people who believe men have too much power in business and finance, yet they are not considered to 'hate men'
Actually, that is not entirely true. Among those that consider men have too much power in business and finance (and thus women should have more power) are many feminists. And there is a sizable group that considers these feminists to collectively ‘hate men’.
However, there are still differences between the two. Quite obviously for every male in a position of power there are many more males in positions of non-power, whereas the statement about Jews in power is rarely accompanied by statistics on how many Jews have non-power positions. Furthermore, when it is said that there are too many men in power, this does not imply a conspiracy of all men conspiring against all non-men to keep those out of power. And lastly, very few people would suggest removing all men from power by force to allow non-men to take over; this was very much suggested and practiced in the Jews’ case.