In a theocracy, God, is considered the top of the hierarchy. Then in some monarchies the line is blurred a bit because the monarch is considered appointed by God or to even be a living-God as in ancient Egypt.
In each case one could argue that moral authority comes from God. i.e. what is good or bad is dictated by God, perhaps as interpreted by the human leader.
In some dictatorships, the leader is considered God-like (e.g. North Korea?) and moral authority is dictated by the will of the dictator. Perhaps also with cues from societal norms and traditions.
I wonder if there is a name for a society where the leader is not considered a God or have any kind of divinity. And yet moral authority is dictated by the leader simply by virtue of being the leader. i.e. Where the populus takes all its moral queues from whoever is is the leader at the time. A change in leader means all the populations morals can change. i.e. the leader is a Pope-like figure in that he can dictate morals but without any claimed supernatural authority.
At first I thought this might be just a "dictatorship" but that kind of implies the populus are under duress (if we assume for example the Germans were under duress during the Nazi period). But if the populus willingly submits to its leader maybe more like Putin and a large proportional of the population of Russia, but also the leader issues moral commandments much like an atheist Pope. Is there a name for this sort of society? (And are then any examples in history?) Or even a democratic system, where the leader has the power (like a Pope) to dictate morals? (I have a feeling that this has never happened since a change in leader would require a reference to a supernatural being in order for the authority to change from one person to another.)