Multiple states in Middle East and Africa seem to be stuck in violent conflicts that seem to be reoccurring and nearly inevitable because of the unstable internal power balance of various ethnic or religious groups inside - they aren't functioning as a single nation because they aren't a single nation, their boundaries have been drawn at decolonization either based on where was a border between, say, England and France; or even at completely arbitrary lines on map.
There are three ways how the borders can start to match the ethnic, tribal or religious identities of people -
Genocide or total cultural assimilation (we've seen attempts at that)
mass migration (Partition of India and Pakistan is an example) with rather horrible consequences
Renegotiating the borders
Oh, and the fourth 'effective' option of closing your eyes and hoping that the problem will solve itself, which we're doing now in all those regions.
Why is the third option refused?
It doesn't seem that it's even given a serious consideration - the global community is treating the territorial integrity of Iraq, Somalia or others as sacred even while being ready to depose local governments there. Why can't local self-determination movements be supported even if it would change a line that was drawn on map by some foreign bureaucrat?
It cost Western Europe centuries and a sea full of blood to come to borders that agree with the actual distribution of nations. Why should Middle East and Africa really be forced to pay the same cost?
It's not easy to do the transformation, but it does seem clear that the situation could be improved by allowing Sunni and Shia populations in Iraq and Syria to have self-determination and separate countries, instead of forcing the communities together where they'll be in internal conflict. A 1% scattered minority isn't a threat and can coexist; but if it's 33% vs 66%, then it's either rule or be ruled. Similarly for Afghanistan and the conflicts between Pushtun and other groups; similarly for situations such as Rwanda. A difficult one-time transition would be clearly better than a civil war every generation or so.