The US Congress has recently passed a law penalizing foreign companies and individuals in Europe for working on a gas-pipeline from Russia to Germany. This law affects non-US citizens in Europe and the general population in Germany, who would be using the natural gas imported through this pipeline.
So, I'm wondering what's the legal and political principle for making such laws? And do such laws violate some basic principles of democracy?
The basic principle of democracy might be summed as a rule by the people and for the people.
But I don't see how extraterritorial laws, where a law of one country affects the population of another country, fulfills this democratic principle.
Because the people in the affected country don't elect their foreign law-makers. The foreign law-makers aren't accountable to the people for whom they've made the laws. And the population affected by extraterritorial laws don't have any way of changing or eliminating any such laws that they don't like.