Currently, no, there is no way to confirm that your ballot was counted accurately. You can validate that the state has a record that you voted but not who you voted for.
In order to have a secret ballot, the state needs to be able to guarantee voters that their spouse/ parent/ employer/ etc. cannot determine who you voted for. Thus, all current systems ensure that the actual paper/ electronic ballot is separated from the record of who the ballot was assigned to.
I don't believe there are any states which permit you to take pictures of your ballot. Generally, that is to prevent vote selling and/or pressuring a voter to vote a certain way. If you were allowed to take a photo of your ballot, an unscrupulous employer/ spouse/ parent/ vote buyer could demand you take a photo of your ballot to confirm that you voted a particular way. Of course, you could always (assuming there is no way to tie your vote to you) spoil your ballot after taking the picture. That's (a lot) more work during the voting process and it also makes the photo pointless for any sort of reconciliation process.
If society determined that counting ballots incorrectly was a greater threat to democracy than losing the secret ballot, there is nothing that prevents an electronic or physical system from giving a voter the equivalent of a voting receipt. Historically, though, vote buying and vote pressuring have been much larger concerns. I'd personally be much more concerned that a bunch of low wage workers/ elderly folks were being coerced into voting for their employer's or caretaker's favorite candidate than I am that counting errors are going to exceed the size of the victory.
Worrying that someone is going to physically tamper with your ballot after it leaves your hands seems more than a little paranoid. There are multiple layers of checks and balances to prevent that with observers from both major parties on hand to confirm that counting is being done correctly. Trying to manually alter enough ballots to swing an election without drawing the attention of busloads of observers would be highly, highly difficult. There are certainly cases where ballots aren't counted correctly but it's a lot more likely that you or the printer accidentally created a smudge that was picked up as a vote or that the electronic voting machine was slightly misaligned and you hit a button other than what you intended than that someone would manually manipulate your ballot. In all the precincts I've voted in that used pen and paper ballots, the scanner you feed your ballot into would show an error if you had an overvote (multiple selections for the same office recorded by the scanner) to give you the option of spoiling your ballot and re-voting.