Arguably, the United States of America has. Sort of. It's confusing.
The federal government, or rather the president and some of his cabinet, has largely left the response up to individual states. It's less of a conclusion, and more a result of chaos and denial at the Federal level.
It is difficult to write this up in a neutral tone, to find sources with a neutral tone, or to even determine what the official federal response is. Federal response has been chaotic and contradictory and the conduct of the president has been appalling. I live in the US. This is not an abstract answer.
An example of this confusion is the president's tendency to make sweeping declarations only to rescind them the next day. For example, the president declared "total authority" over the states re-opening plans, and then the next day he "authorized" the states to come up with their own plans. He has neither power.
Another example is confusion about who is in charge. There is an official White House Coronavirus Task Force lead by Vice President Pence and Dr. Brix. Jared Kushner leads a "shadow" task force. They often conflict with each other. Jared Kushner has no experience in disaster managment; he is the president's son-in-law.
The federal government has taken some actions.
- Jan 31, declared a public health emergency.
- Feb 2, issued a travel ban on China.
- March 13, declared a national emergency.
- March 16, advised against groups of more than 10 people.
- March 19, advised against international travel.
WHO recommends against blanket travel and trade bans as they "may interrupt needed aid and technical support, may disrupt businesses, and may have negative social and economic effects on the affected countries".
In other areas they have opted to have the states handle disaster response usually handled by the federal government, often with no warning, and while the states and companies are pleading for help.
- Jared Kushner, the leader of a coronavirus task force, stated that "the notion of the federal stockpile was it's supposed to be our stockpile... it's not supposed to be states' stockpiles that they then use" in contrast to the stated goal of the stockpile. The stated goal was then changed to match Kushner's statement.
- The president has been reluctant to use the Defense Production Act to help medical production, but then using it to force meat packing plants to remain open.
- The president encouraging protests against state lock-down orders, orders which often agree with federal policy.
- The president's transactional view of federal disaster response, "It's a two-way street. [The states] have to treat us well, also. They can't say, 'Oh, gee, we should get this, we should get that.'"
- Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell suggested allowing states to go bankrupt (currently they cannot) rather than giving federal financial support usual for a disaster.
- The president suddenly cut funding for the World Health Organization accusing it of bias and responding poorly to the pandemic.
- The CDC has the power to "detain, medically examine, and release persons... traveling between states who are suspected of carrying these communicable diseases", but so far has declined to use it. Instead, individual states, and even a county, have been setting up a patchwork of checkpoints.
There is pattern of reluctance to coordinate procurement and distribution of vital supplies, for issuing clear guidelines for state closures and reopening, and for making these policies national. There is also a pattern of using federal aid as a carrot and stick to pursue agendas against certain states and punishing perceived political enemies.
This is based on no evidence, but political ideology. It is in contrast to previous federal disaster responses leaving state and local governments scrambling. And it is in stark contrast to expert advice, both inside and outside the federal government. Dr. Brix, White House Coronavirus Response Coordinator, Dr. Fauci, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Dr. Redfield, Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have all contradicted many of the president's decisions, including the need for federal coordination.
While there was some initial rapid response from Congress, they are quickly falling back into partisan deadlock. Senate Majority Leader McConnell has stated the Senate will focus on confirming lifetime judicial appointments, not coronavirus work. The Republican party is in danger of losing control of both the Senate and the presidency at the end of the year.
This has resulted in high profile, public arguments between the president and governors over federal vs state response and responsibility. For example, between President Trump and New York Governor Cuomo. New York is one of the hardest hit states. It has also been a subject of the president's ire prior to the virus.
Some state governors have then allowed the response to further devolve to their cities and counties, either explicitly or through inaction, and often at odds. For example, currently the state of South Dakota has largely downplayed the virus, while Native American tribes within its borders have not. They are currently at odds over their policies.
In response, many states are recognizing that the virus respects no borders. They're at risk of competing against each other for scarce resources and driving up the price. They must coordinate. With the federal government abdicating leadership, they are banding together into compacts to coordinate their plans, particularly about how and when to ease restrictions. For example, the Western States Pact and the Midwestern Governors Regional Pact and the Eastern states Multi-State Council.
The result is a state-by-state, sometimes city-by-city, patchwork of responses. Every state has declared a state of emergency and nearly all have some sort of stay at home order. As of this writing, nationally the number of cases and death toll continues to rise steadily.
Four states never issued a stay-at-home order and, as of this writing, 13 states have rescinded their stay-at-home order. With the exception of extremely rural Montana, all are continuing to see a steady rise in cases and deaths.