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The northeastern part of India known as Ladakh in India and Aksai Chin in China is a disputed territory between India and China. There is no international border between India and China in that region, but there is a line called Line of Actual Control (LAC). The LAC was established when India lost the 1962 war against China.

Since 1962, occasional trespassing, transgression, and skirmishes have been going on between India and China. But, since the last few weeks, the situation is suddenly escalated. For instance, for the last 48 hours Chinese soldiers are 5 km inside territory claimed by India in the Ladakh region beside a lake. They have stationed 5000 soldiers, tents, weapons, and ammunition there.

Why is this sudden escalation taking place?

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    This is a daily of each and every territorial conflict. For example, some time ago US violates Chinese border: reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-security-usa/… – user2501323 May 25 at 6:35
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    @user2501323: I guess the question is "does China (or has it in the past) formally recognize the Ladakh region as Indian territory or does it despute it?" I know that US's position is effectively "act as though Taiwan is independent, but don't say explicitly say so". – sharur May 25 at 8:05
  • @sharur, yes, it would be more clear. – user2501323 May 25 at 8:14
  • The first sentence in en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladakh says it's disputed territory since 1947. – Fizz May 25 at 15:41
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This is hardly "coming out of nowhere"! There have been ongoing disputes between China and India since 1948, (and probably since 1948 BC!)

There are several claim lines between China and India, and a vaguely defined "Line of Actual Control" (which as the name suggests can move as each side controls different sections of land.)

The region is mountainous and harsh. It is difficult to patrol at any time, but particularly in Winter. So in the spring of each year, both sides build up troops and attempt to enforce their own idea of "the Line of Actual Control". A troop build-up in spring is nothing new.

The extra factors in the mix this year are the COVID-19 crisis (and the implications of who is responsible for the health of people in the region) and the building of a road close to the Galwan river by India. Moreover the reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir will have increased Chinese concern about the region.

So "why are there Chinese troops in India":

  1. China doesn't consider them to be in India.
  2. This happens on some scale each year.
  3. Tensions are raised due to
    • Re-organisation in Jammu and Kashmir
    • Road building
    • COVID
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  • Re-organisation in Jammu and Kashmir --- what do mean by re-organization. Do you mean annexation and demographic modification? – user366312 May 25 at 10:10
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    Removing the article 370 bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-49234708 – James K May 25 at 12:36
  • Is the presence of ~5k military beyond the LAC something usual, or is China showing muscle on a different scale this year ? – Evargalo Jun 18 at 8:44
  • Yes its a show of muscle. Road building by both sides causes tension, and the article 370 thing has probably raised the area's prominence in the Chinese military. – James K Jun 18 at 8:51
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Sudden isn't it? No!

Actually, China is irked by the statement of Amit Shah and Rajnath Singh that they will take away Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (flag 3). Modi proved his guts by taking away Jammu & Kashmir (flag 1) with just a stroke of a pen, and then there was Balakot air strike (flag 2) and finally, constructing roadways near Chinese boarder (flag 4)

China by then knew that the Govt. of India will take away Pakistan-occupied Kashmire(PoK) and their mega project will succumb, or India will negotiate everything they can in order for Chinese to save their heavy investment in PoK region along with Baluchistan looting of resources which passes through PoK by roadways to China.

Why India is still lenient towards China?

Because, Modi doesn't want China to smell the final move of the game. But, to Modi's misfortune China did sense it bit early and COVID-19 is helping China to dominate over the Galwan issue with economic doldrums in India. This type of Galwan confrontation is more to come yet. In future, when Modi tries to take away PoK, Chinese troops will cross the Line of Actual Control and will confront with Indian boarder forces. So, India will be forced to divert their armed forces at Eastern boarders.

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    If you ate going to reference flags 1-4, presumably there's a map somewhere that you are referring to, which you should include in your answer so that it makes sense. – PhillS Jun 18 at 6:11
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    @PhillS, is he talking about a map? I am not sure. I think here flag == warning sign. – user366312 Jun 18 at 8:36
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    This is nothing but a rant. – user366312 Jun 18 at 8:36
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    @PhillS, GOI== Govt of India. PoK == Pakistan Occupied Kashmir == Azad Jammu and Kashmir. LAC == Line of Actual Control. J&K == Jammu & Kashmir. – user366312 Jun 18 at 9:06
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    @Ubihatt No, it is not. We expect answers on this website to be accessible to a wider audience, not just to people who are deeply familiar with the subject matter. I took the liberty to edit your answer to explain some of the acronyms you are using. – Philipp Jun 19 at 9:14

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